Date rape victims. Battered women. Hostages. Do these groups of people share certain psychological characteristics? According to a study at the University of Cincinnati, they do.

The study is one of the first to look at how The Stockholm Syndrome relates to dating. The Stockholm Syndrome is a concept that emerged years ago when researchers studied the psychological characteristics of hostages and found they actually bonded with their captors, in spite of suffering abuse.

Previous studies at the University of Cincinnati have linked the behavior of battered women to The Stockholm Syndrome.

"Lots of women say, `If I were battered, I'd just leave,'" said Dr. Dee Graham, a psychologist who conducted the study. "But what most battered women know is that's what gets you more severely battered or even killed. The battered woman is real aware of those contingencies, so, like a hostage, she develops a bond when she sees no way out."

Seeing "no way out" is perhaps the key to the psychology of the Stockholm Syndrome. "These are terrifying situations," she said. "People see their survival at stake. Dwelling on the bad gets in the way of what you need to survive. Slowly you start to distort the situation, see some good and slowly begin to bond."

After finding a connection between The Stockholm Syndrome and battered women, Graham said Cincinnati researchers decided to see how syndrome behavior might relate to dating in general.

"What's significant is that ... we picked people off the street, and what we found suggests that the dynamics of this are evasive and that every relationship is more or less abusive," Graham said.

Date rape is an example of the extreme result of that abuse, Graham said. On one hand, a woman might be pressured to have sex but nothing happens. But in the most extreme case, a date rape could occur.

"Pressure to have sex is normal," Graham said. But if the situation does result in a rape, "People usually deny the abuse just to cope with it."

In a look at other research, Graham found one study that reported 25 to 35 percent of young women perceived violence toward them as a sign of love. That helped spark her theory that Stockholm Syndrome behavior could be linked to dating.

Graham's study involved a random sample of 764 undergraudate women at the University of Cincinnati.








Is the "discovery" of America anything to celebrate?

Renowned author, diplomat and political activist Carlos Fuentes will tackle the controversial issue at UH-Downtown at 7 p.m. Thursday, Oct. 10.

The events planned to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' 1492 landing in the Americas have raised the ire of native Americans and the commission assigned to plan them.

Fuentes speech, "The Buried Mirror: Reflections on the Culture of Spain and the New World," is free and open to the public as part of UH-D's Distinguished Lecture Series.

The maelstrom over the 500th anniversary of Columbus' landing began in 1984, when Congress created a presidential commission to recognize the anniversary and did not include native Americans on its board.

The Quicentenary Jubilee Commission has since been allocated more than $80 million for the events, including a traveling exhibit, five international conferences and a regatta of ships that will travel to ports here and abroad.

Native American activists complain the interpretation by scholars of Columbus' voyages and landing are inaccurate. Plans continue on both sides, with one planning a celebration and the other a protest.

Born in Panama City in 1928, Fuentes attended primary school in Washington, D.C. and secondary school in Argentina and Chile. He studied at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Internationales in Geneva, Switzerland and obtained a law degree from the National University of Mexico.

Like his father, Fuentes became a diplomat, serving as Mexican ambassador to Holland, Panama, Portugal and Italy. At 22, he served as both secretary to the Mexican representative to the International Law Commission and press secretary of the United Nations.

At age 28, Fuentes was director of international cultural relations for Mexico's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Meanwhile, Fuentes' literary achievements were being recognized on many levels. His 1967 Cambio de piel received the Biblioteca Breve Award in Spain. Fuentes was awarded the National Prize for Literature in Mexico in 1984.

Fuentes is a longtime advocate of Central American peace and is currently a member of Mexico's National Commission on Human Rights.









As the AIDS epidemic enters its second decade, social workers are giving more consideration as to how they should deal with people who struggle with this disease.

Gary Lloyd, former dean of the UH Graduate School of Social Work, will address these issues during his lecture at 4 p.m. Thursday at the UH Hilton Hotel. The lecture "Who Will Speak For Us?: Social Work and AIDS In the Second Decade" marks the Sixth Annual Helen B. Kapiloff Health Care Lecture Series.

In his speech, Lloyd will examine the psychological impact of AIDS on individuals and society.

Lloyd said AIDS is one of the most stressful diseases because of the social stigma it carries. He will also discuss the idea of developing AIDS programs and policies.

"It is devastating because we have no national policy or the health care cost needed to take care of the AIDS patient," Lloyd said.

The AIDS expert said he will focus on developing more home-based care and simple access to more extended and managed care systems.

Lloyd said his speech will also touch on the AIDS incident involving Kimberly Bergalis who contracted the HIV virus from her dentist.

Lloyd left UH in 1977, and is now a professor and director of the Insitute for Research and Training in HIV/AIDS Counseling at Tulane University School of Social Work in New Orleans. He is also a consultant to the World Health Organization Global Programme on AIDS and has developed a training manual for HIV counselors which was translated into six languages and is in use worldwide.

Lloyd was named the Social Worker of the Year by the National Association of Social Workers in 1990.

This lecture series honors Helen Kapiloff, Chief Social Worker at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, for her medical contributions to the community.

The lecture series covers all sorts of generic issues. Kapiloff said she hopes these lectures benefit everyone because "each of them has been a major summarization of major issues."








The airhorn used by the UH football team to signify touchdowns was heard last weekend even though the Cougars didn't play.

Sigma Chi employed the horn to help kick off the second week of intramural football games behind Hofheinz Pavilion.

"The horn got us a little crazy and helped us win and show spirit for our team," said Jeff Adams, Sigma Chi intramural chair.

With the win, Sigma Chi remains undefeated and ranked third in this week's `A' league intramural poll behind No. 1-rated Asbury Jukes and No. 2 Pi Kappa Alpha.

"The Pikes have had the high-scoring offense and have yet to be scored on in their first two meetings. But they remain No. 2 because the Jukes are the defending champions and have not lost," Intramural Assistant Lara Bankston said.

In the game of the week, the No. 2-ranked Sleepers edged the No.8-ranked Gunslingers in a close 19-16 score. Even though the Sleepers won, the close score dropped them to No. 4. The Gunslingers dropped out of the polls.

"This game produced some heroic plays and fierce competition," Intramural Assistant Terrence O'Connor said. "The outcome will definitely hurt the Gunslingers' attempt for the championship."

A surprise team in the `B' league, which is typically less competitive than the `A' league, is Unexpected Sex. They easily rolled over Seoul to Seoul 50-6.

The success of Unexpected Sex rests on the talents of quarterback Walter Maeker and the physical shape of the players.

"The guys on Unexpected Sex are stud football players and good athletes," Bankston said.









Fred Gilbert has given up the glitzy life of Southern California.

He left UCLA to come back home and play football in the Southwest Conference.

The 5-9, 174-pound inside receiver from Huntsville, has

gone from a shady spot on the bench to leading the nation in receiving through three games with the Cougars.

He wanted to attend UH his freshman year. But with the Cougars on probation, that meant little, if any, media coverage.

The opportunity to play on the same team with standouts such as Troy Aikman prompted Gilbert to begin his football career in Los Angeles.

Two weeks before he even arrived there for his redshirt freshman year, however, a series of events began that eventually pushed him back to Houston.

First came a dislocated finger that had him in a cast instead of on the practice field. And by the time he had the feel for the ball again, he learned the senior in front of him on the depth chart had just finished a year on the receiving end of Aikman's single-season national passing record.

Only a freshman, a patient Freddie Gilbert took it in stride, learned by watching, and waited until his sophomore year.

"But then all of a sudden we switched offensive coordinators, and we went to more like a three tight end set," Gilbert said. "That pushed me back for playing time. I was the receiver to go in, but when you've got two receivers and try to rotate a third guy to go in there, there just weren't any balls coming because all the tight ends get all the balls."

The following spring, UCLA installed the option in its offense, making it even less likely Gilbert would see much playing time. Gilbert decided to come home.

"It was always in the back of my mind from the first time I got there," he said. "I didn't feel any loyalty towards the PAC-10 or UCLA. I would find myself Sunday mornings looking in the paper to see how Houston did; see how Texas did; see how the Southwest Conference did."

And, of course, there's always Mom.

"I was really close to my mom. I found myself calling her sometimes and crying and saying ...," Gilbert said as he broke into laughter.

Gilbert never played organized football until junior high school, a late start for most who make it to the college level. His favorite childhood sport was baseball.

"All the way up to little league; all the way up to about my sophomore year of high school; everybody thought `he's gonna play baseball.' I played shortstop, I could pitch, I did a lot of things and, of course, stealing bases."

In fact, he said, 70 to 80 percent of his awards at the time came from baseball.

The transition came when track season overlapped with baseball, and he quit the latter. Then Gilbert's interest in football emerged, starting first as a quarterback, then a wingback. He made the high school varsity team as a defensive back his freshman year. And when the starting wingback fell victim to Texas House bill 72, otherwise known as "No Pass, No Play," Gilbert found himself playing both positions.

Between football, his girlfriend and working toward an economics degree, Gilbert spends time going to movies, playing video games and collecting compact discs -- anything from easy listening to soul to light rap music.

Working summers for a local construction company broadened his interest in the financial end of the business.

But baseball still looms in the background, even with what would appear to be a future in the National Football League. Gilbert even hints the possibility of becoming a two-sport athlete down the road, perhaps another Bo Jackson or Deion Sanders, saying he's been going back to the batting cages trying to regain his swing.

But for now, he's feeling right at home with the Cougars, leading the nation with 12.3 catches per game for a total of 355 yards.

After transferring from UCLA, NCAA rules required Gilbert to sit out one academic year, during which time he studied the Run-and-Shoot.

"When I first learned it, I was misreading a lot of coverages, not getting deep enough in my routes. But the way Coach John Jenkins teaches it, it's really not that hard to learn," he said. "When I first got here, we would go over one play during a whole practice. It's easy to learn that way."

A lesson he says wasn't so easy to learn was staying home. Going away to attend school and play ball may be good for some, but Gilbert now knows just where he belongs.

"Even if it had worked out at UCLA, I still would feel that way. You miss out on a lot of things," he said. "Your name recognition is here, you can build the quality of the conference. I'd tell any recruit now, `Hey, if you're out recruiting, stay around home.'"








Hi, I'm Chris English!

And I'm John Griffin!

And we're (in unison) At the Sterile, Controlled Film Viewing Environment.

This week we'll be reviewing the latest endeavor by Terry Gilliam, The Fisher King, released by Tri-Star Pictures.

At its essence, The Fisher King is basically a modern-day quest for the Holy Grail. Set in New York City, the story centers around the strange twists of fate that end up connecting Jack Lucas (Jeff Bridges), a controversial radio talk-show host, with Parry (Robin Williams), a former history professor who lives on the streets following a tragedy in his past. Working from Richard LaGravenese's impressive screenplay, Gilliam carries his cast through the heart of the city on a wonderful odyssey replete with destruction, chivalry, romance and redemption.

And Chris, let me begin by saying that two days ago I wasn't sure if major-release movies had the capacity anymore to transcend the banal commercialism which keeps them mired in mediocrity. After seeing countless shabby films, I felt fairly certain innovation and daring would be forever confined to art houses and college auditoriums. I'm happy to say Gilliam's film has changed my mind, at least for the time being.

Well, John, I'm not quite sure art houses are exactly sanctuaries of innovation and daring, but I'll have to agree this film was a pleasant change after the overwhelming dross of cotton-candy cinematics that summer always brings. But I wasn't exactly surprised. I mean, look who directed it. Terry Gilliam did Brazil, after all. I wasn't expecting some glib story with pretty faces promoting the American Way of Life.

Neither was I, Chris, but you must admit, we're seeing Gilliam at his most mainstream here. Unlike his previous efforts, this movie carries some significant star power. Jeff Bridges and Robin Williams are known in more than a few households and have the promotion to match. The potential for corporate fingers muddying up the pie was very real.

On top of which, big studios have been terribly reluctant in recent years to take the kind of chances Gilliam is known for. After all, reworking Grail mythology usually requires some impressive special effects and a lot of gratuitous action. Fortunately here, the finished product teems with creativity and vibrance.

You're right, it wasn't quite as surrealistic, is that the word? Surrealistic? ... as Brazil, but it did have Gilliam's thumbprint on it: the wierd, distorted angles, the mythological allegory and the exaggerated, visual pranks. The scene in which everyone begins to waltz in Grand Central Station is definitely Gilliam.

As a director, he has that affinity like David Lynch for the freak, but with more clemency. For example, Michael Jeter (from Greater Tuna) makes an excellent Damsel in Distress as the homeless cabaret singer. I think it's the supporting actors who really make this film fly. Mercedes Ruehl is completely believable as the heady but fallable "Anne," the video store owner madly in love with a demoralized Jeff Bridges. It's the little guys in this film who shine, who are exonerated in the end.

Plus, I like the magical realism in effect in the film as well. The way in which the idea of fate is built up and discredited alternatingly throughout the film. Parry's "quest" is explained away as a schizophrenic fabrication to cope with the traumatic killing of his wife. Yet, at the same time, the amazing coincidence that connects Jack to the same trauma takes on an almost metaphysical quality. The ideas of retribution and penance also intertwine throughout the fabric of the story.

Exactly, Chris. This film dances with intensity as it plays off of pop culture and medieval legend. Skid- row bums become knights errant and a radio personality plays the fool who redeems the Fisher King. It is testimony to Gilliam's prowess as a director that he is able to maintain control over such a complex and multidimensional project.

As you said, he coaxes fabulous performances out of his cast, using a myriad of personalities as a glue adheres the pieces. It should be noted that Gilliam worked very closely with the entire crew on this film, allowing considerable input from all aspects of the production team.

Yes, John, but let's talk a little about Robin Williams. What a reading. Already his name is being tossed around for Oscar consideration, a fact which should come as no surprise after viewing this film. Williams, who has been known primarily for his comedic work in the past, has established himself in his last few films as an accomplished dramatic actor. His three years of study at New York's famed Juilliard Institution in Dramatics with an emphasis in improvisation has led to a pair of Academy Award nominations for Good Morning, Vietnam and Dead Poets Society.

Yeah, but, Chris ... Jeff Bridges was better than Robin Williams.


That's right. Jeff Bridges was better than Robin Williams.

John, I'm not saying he didn't do a bully of a job as deadbeat scum. But Mr. Bridges was not better than Robin Williams.

Yes he was.

No. He wasn't.









UH faculty and staff employed by Sept. 1 will receive a 2 percent across-the-board raise, but this increase is tightening some already-pinched budgets.

Even though state Comptroller John Sharp found the necessary funds to give state employees 2 percent raises, the state is only providing the 2 percent for those UH employees on budgets funded through general revenue, which is based on formula funding, Hugh Ferguson, interim assistant vice president for planning and budgeting said.

Other sources of revenue are from tuition and fees, auxiliary services which are self-supported, like the University Center, and from restricted contracts and grants, Ferguson said.

The state-mandated, 2 percent raises will have to come from within these departments' budget, he said.

While new faculty, whose appointments officially began on Sept. 1, will be excluded from the 2 percent increase, graduate assistants and others employed in lump-sum positions on Sept. 1 will be included in the 2 percent raise.

Interim Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs James Pickering said, "The reason we made this decision is because I've heard time and time again that the graduate departments were not recruiting because the stipends paid to graduate assistants were too low."

By increasing their pay, Pickering said, this money will be available year after year for other graduate assistants.

He said there has been a persistent litany to give graduate assistants salaries to improve recruitment.

Because of this decision, newly hired graduate assistants working on grants will be given the raise, he said.

Grants are given to faculty members for research, and graduate assistants are often employed to help with the research, said Stuart Long, chair of the electrical engineering department.

These raises come directly out of their grant money, Long said.

"We count on giving people raises after their first year, but now we're forced to give them a raise after only one month," he said.

This is a double wammy on grant contracts because the graduate benefits nearly doubled this year, Long said.

Julie Norris, the director of sponsored programs, said this is a difficult problem.

The cost for FICA and workers' compensation for graduate assistants last year was 16.5 percent for U.S. citizens or permanent residents, she said.

The amount was raised this year by 13 percent for both U.S. and foreign citizens for health insurance, Norris said.

She said they tried to persuade faculty pursuing grants to include higher estimates for hired help in their proposals to cover fringe benefits.

But Norris said that with the federal government trimming the amount it gives for grants, it winds up being a two-edged sword for those seeking these grants.

Michael O'Neill, chair of civil and environmental engineering department, said the combination of the 2 percent increase and the increased benefits cost winds up siphoning about 3.6 percent out of the grants for a graduate assistant.

"I think the administration and Pickering felt that the amounts paid to graduate assistants were too low and he took this opportunity to raise it.

"The sponsor tries to lower the grant wherever possible. When you've cut every corner you can and you've sharpened your pencil as sharp as you can and then the administration says you have to take out additional money," O'Neill said.

He said negotiations are made with the assistants prior to their employment and these increased costs affect items that were not budgeted.

"I can cover my additional expenses from my discretionary funds but other faculty members can't do it," he said.

But, Pickering said these raises had to be whole or nothing. It would be discriminatory, he said, to decide not to give one group the raise.

O'Neill said this will cause ill will in the faculty member who, he said, is already working hard and will have to cut the scope of what the assistant does and do it himself.

"The morale of the faculty will suffer," he said.

O'Neill said the raises should have been fazed in instead of done unilaterally.

"I think it's a good idea to raise the floor level but doing so at a time when budgets are tight and after you have already received your money from sponsors -- you just can't go back and ask for more.

"The rules changed in the middle of the game, and with the increases in benefits, the 2 percent raise is the straw that broke the camel's back," O'Neill said.

Pickering agrees the raises have come at a difficult time and works to the disadvantage of the faculty member working on a grant.

"I know it causes hardships for people on grants," Pickering said. "I do understand it's adding insult to injury."

ONeill said money will have to be taken away from other costs to augment the additional costs, such as hiring additional students and not paying himself during the summer.

"But the bottom line doesn't change -- I can't ask my sponsors for more money. You agree on an amount and you do it for that amount. I don't think the university appreciates that," O'Neill said.









The president of Sigma Alpha Epsilon was indicted for aggravated assault Monday on charges of biting the fingertip off a woman during a fraternity party on Aug. 25.

A Harris County grand jury sided with UH-Downtown sophomore Carrin Huber, 22, against SAE President Stephen Ferro, 22, after hearing testimony from both parties on how her left pinky finger was severed during a fight that erupted during the party.

Huber said she was trying to break up a fight between Ferro and her boyfriend, Kevin Schramm, 19, when Ferro put her finger in his mouth and chomped it off.

Huber's lawyer, Rusty Hardin, said the trouble began when Huber unfastened a rope indoors and, unintentionally, caused a sign outside to crash down on a SAE member. Huber immediately apologized and was complying to SAE members' orders to leave the premises when the fight between Ferro and Schramm broke out, Hardin said.

Ferro's lawyer, Joe Bailey, said Huber jumped into the altercation between Ferro and Schramm with the intention of giving her boyfriend an advantage by pulling Ferro's hair and attempting to choke him.

Bailey said it was unfortunate Huber's fingertip was inadvertently severed, but added it is ludicrous for her to claim Ferro purposefully severed her finger when so many independent eyewitnesses said nothing like that happened.

Ferro's case will go to the district attorney's office, and, if found guilty, Ferro could be sentenced to 10 years in prison and fined $5,000.

"We intend to fight this thing every step of the way," Bailey said. "He's not guilty."

Ferro's status with the fraternity will remain unchanged despite the the grand jurors' decision, SAE Advisor Greg Robertson said.

There are no plans to demote Ferro as the fraternity's president, and his indictment will not affect the operation or function of the fraternity in any way, he said.

The fraternity's house, located at 3036 S. MacGregor Way, is closed.


Visit The Daily Cougar