By Marcia Marbury

Daily Cougar

When Taiwanese junior high school teacher Brenda Liu boarded an aircraft in Taiwan for a 15-hour journey to the U.S., she knew now that home would only be an image in her mind, on television or in textbooks., at least for six weeks.

Liu, an English teacher, and nine other similar Taiwanese teachers will gain the opportunity to enhance their methods for teaching English as a second language while attending the first six-week Teacher Enrichment Program at UH.

Ten teachers will attend UH; and 10 others, the University of California at Davis, for a four-week academic curriculum, and tour either state for two-weeks to mingle with Americans and enrich their knowledge of the American culture July 14 through August 7.

"This is a pilot program to improve the skills of Taiwanese teachers to be more effective in teaching English," said Carl DeAngelis, a manager of pre-academic programs at the Institute of International Education in New York.

Dr. JoAnn Schick, a UH lecturer of bilingual education, said, "We're hoping to update the teachers' English-teaching methodology and how people learn language and best teach it."

She added, "The problem is not the language (English), It's the jet lag."

Morning classes for the educators will focus on language skills, and the afternoon will focus on cross-cultural communication and techniques for teaching English, for four weeks. Educators will then visit NASA, San Antonio and Austin to practice their English skills within a two-week period.

"We want to help them understand deep-seated values and behavior patterns common to all American, so they can share them with their students (seventh- to ninth-graders)," said UH Teacher of Cross Cultural Communications Carol Archer, in a news release.

Director of the Language and Culture Center at UH, Joe Davidson, said UH is thrilled to be a part of this program because it highlights the university's emphasis on creating an international environment on campus.

"We're delighted. We think it's a good program," he said.

A crew of nine women and one man that speak an average of three different languages earned the right to come here when they were nominated by their principals, completed an application and took a two-hour test.

"You must have done something special for English teachers," said Carol Lin, a Taiwanese English teacher. Another said only English teachers were qualified for the program. A third said the teacher must be under 45 years old.

DeAngelis said he was the spearhead of this program which took approximately one year and a half to plan after the Ministry of Education in Taiwan initiated TEP and contacted IIE, he said.

"The idea originated with the foundation for scholarly exchange in Taipei," DeAngelis said.

Similar to scholarly exchange of the TEP is the Fulbright program, the oldest and most prestigious exchange program today according to DeAngelis.

Created by J. William Fulbright, the Fulbright program began after World War II to promote understanding between the nations.




By Meagan McGovern

Daily Cougar

How safe are the residence halls that house over 2,400 UH students? In the wake of a rape and a sexual assault on campus this summer, it's a question many students are asking.

In some of the halls, such as the Moody Towers, students must pass a security checkpoint and show an I.D. card to enter. Guests must be signed in, show an I.D. and be accompanied by a resident at all times, said Cougar Place Area Coordinator and former Moody Towers AC Terry Bridges.

In the Quadrangle and Cougar Place, no security checkpoints exist. In the Quadrangle, the halls are entered with each student's key, which also unlocks the student's door. Guests may enter with the student.

In both Cougar Place and the Quadrangle, there is no record of who visits. If a door into one of the Quadrangle's buildings doesn't close completely or is left propped open, anyone can enter at any time, but the doors are wired to a switchboard and intercom system at Oberholtzer Hall's front desk so that the desk worker on duty can immediately inform resident advisors (RA's) on call when doors are kept open.

"Most crimes occur because of students leaving doors unlocked," said Lt. Hellia Durant of UHPD. "People who are visiting seize the opportunity to commit a crime."

He said most crimes in the residence halls involve theft, not violence. "It only takes 5-10 seconds to run into a room left open and take a camera or cash. People take things that are left out in plain view. Those types of crimes happen routinely in the dorms."

Lisa Noble, who works as a desk attendant in the Towers agrees. "One thing I've seen that really upsets me is people leaving their doors unlocked, even to go to the bathroom. Anyone can walk down the hallway and try the knobs to see if the room is unlocked. Everyone feels so safe here that they aren't careful."

Noble said there was "next to no" crime in the Towers because of the security checkpoint. "I've been here two years, and we've only had two bad incidents which were between friends or couples fighting," she said.

Durant said the residence halls are "relatively safer" than apartments in the area because of the on-site security checks. In his 12 years with UHPD, he said he can remember only one rape, and "he was caught the next day because he came back."

The only security hazard in the halls Durant saw was the habit some students in the Quadrangle have leaving the outer door propped open for a friend to visit.

Bridges said the large majority of crime in the residence halls consists of petty thefts. "There's really not an outside criminal element, although we occasionally have a domestic disturbance, with friends fighting. Outside criminals don't want to be caught in an environment like the towers, were they have no escape, except past the security desk."

In the Quadrangle, Bridges said, there are more opportunities for crime because "instead of one person controlling the door, you have 900 people with a key."

Durant said first-time freshman are "more prone to be ripped off" than more experience students. "They're not thinking about safety or about watching their possessions." He said to be safe, students should take certain precautions. "Keep valuable out of sight. Lock up you proper and lock your door. Some people go to sleep with their doors unlocked and are ripped off while they sleep."

Durant said if students remove the opportunity, they remove 95 percent of crime.




By Ericka Schiche

Daily Cougar

As they sat, affected by the sweltering and the racial tensions in New York City, three black men lamented the relative success of a Korean independent grocer.

The scene, from director Spike Lee's 1989 file Do the Right Thing illustrated the frustration of some who say the black business community is paying for problems which stem form a weakened capital base and a change from more economic self-sufficiency to less.

While it is indeed a problem, the difficulty in securing capital is but one of several woes plaguing some black entrepreneurs. Among the other significant problems are inequality in the contract-awarding process, the arduous task of getting loans and a downward spiraling of the economics situation. Such problems make for a situation exacerbated by recessionary times, high unemployment and a snail's pace flow of dollars, which will eventually lead to more bankruptcies and failed businesses.

Many of the problems stem form the late start of black entrepreneurs. "Blacks (in the U.S.) had been denied access to opportunities fro at leas 300 years.

With relative freedom, they have been able to access opportunities legally within the last 30 years," said Hopeton Hay, director of communications for the Houston Business Council, a privately funded, non-profit minority/ women-owned business development organization established in 1972 to meet the objectives set forth by Public Law No. 95-507, which called for the development of programs to enhance business opportunities and the educational development of the minority business community."

Hay attributes part of the "lack of relative success of black entrepreneurs, up until 1964 and 1965, with the passage of the Voting Rights Act and the Civil Rights Act, which tore town some significant legal barriers." He said implicit barriers prevented access to opportunities or experiences that would enable them to become successful entrepreneurs.

In 1986, then-UH history master's degree candidates James Patterson and Fran Dressman addressed the barriers in their study of Houston-area, black-owned businesses form 1900 to 1929 by quoting author Cary Wintz: "Segregation was deeply entrenched in Houston by 1875, partially by custom and partially by law. Although Houston never full enacted an iron-clad code for black behavior, school were segregated by 1876; railroads in 1891; street cars in 1903; public facilities in 1907; and parks in 1922."

The statistics are telling. In one sense, there has been tremendous growth as indicated by Patterson when he wrote, "In 1910, only 46 businesses were listed on San Felipe Street (the ten-hum of activity within the black community), but by 1925, the amount had more than doubled to 93." As of 1987, according to a Department of Commerce Bureau of the Census report issued in 1990, the number of black-owned businesses has grown to 12, 989, with a total of 35,725 in Texas. Gross receipts for Houston's black-owned businesses totaled $372. 2 million in 1987.

Nevertheless, the growth has yet to erase the problem with depleting resources or the fact that start-up capital is not readily available to black entrepreneurs. In Houston, there is only one black-owned financial institution: Unity National Bank, which is the lone survivor of the recession since Standard Savings & Loan closed its doors.

"I cannot overemphasize the crucial nature of black-owned financial institutions. If you didn't have a bank addressing the special problems, you would have to create one before you could begin to solve these problems," said Limas Jefferson, chairman of the board of major stockholders for Unity National Bank.

Jefferson and Larry Hawkins, chief executive officer and president of Unity, said the bank has about $23,000,000 in assets, $22,000,000 in deposits and 5,000 active accounts. Hawkins said he could estimate the loan-approval rate at 65 percent, but would have to go through each month to determine the exact number of applicants whose requested are approved.

Jefferson purchased the bank for $1.4 million after several hand changes: Founded in the early 1960s as Riverside Bank, it failed in 12985, and was held by LaPorte's Bayshore National Bank until it changed once again to a black-owned financial institution in 1989.

Nevertheless, the disparity in median net income between blacks and whites, for example, creates a problem from which many others stem.

Jefferson said pooling resources and investing in businesses is "the only way members of the black business community will take control of their destiny." He said the government will not step into actively address the problem."

"African-American business development is vital to this country's ability to compete in an ever-changing global economy. My campaign to become president of the United States embodies a commitment to economic empowerment for African-Americans," wrote presidential candidate Bill Clinton in a letter to the readers of Black Enterprise Magazine.

Both branches of Congress recently approved a $1 billion package which is meant to address some of the problems in urban cities such as Los Angeles by providing for more jobs and the stimulation of the various business communities that were scarred by the recent riots.

Hay said if the problems will be addressed within the black business community, there must be a strong partnership between the black community, majority-owned and black-owned financial institutions.

Nevertheless, once they are in business, many black entrepreneurs such as Family Cafe owner Mary Baker have a problem convincing such entities as the Small Business Administration of one thing: They are worthy of assistance.




By Amey Mazurek

Daily Cougar

UH students have a rare opportunity to view the unusually sensitive black-and-white landscapes of photographer Ansel Adams free of charge at the Blaffer Gallery through August 30.

"Over 8,000 people have come through this exhibit," said Namita Wiggers, curatorial assistant for education and public information. About 30,000 exhibit viewers have wandered into the Blaffer Gallery since September 1991, including 1700 school children.

Adams, a personable man, explains his techniques and inspirations in a video, Ansel Adams: Photographer, that runs continuously during the exhibit. In one scene, he held up an empty 3 in. X 3 in. matte to demonstrate to a group of students he surveys the wilderness for portraits. "You can isolate suddenly, become aware of things crawling on the edges," Adams said.

"It' completely different crown from what we normally get through here," said Davis Northcutt, preparator/ gallery attendant. He had noticed more families coming through, rather than the usual crowd of artists.

"I guess its appeal has to do with the myth of American heroism," Northcutt said. The sweeping landscapes seem to suggestt the wild West. "There's an identity in it about being an American," he said.

The gallery is open Tuesday -Friday, 10 a.m. -5 p.m., Saturday and Sunday, 1 p.m. - 5 p.m., and is closed Mondays.




By Deborah Hensel

Daily Cougar

"If we taught our children to speak in the way we teach them to write," said Mark Twain, "everyone would stutter."

Like a speech impediment, writer's block can hinder the flow of words for anyone who tires to transfer thoughts to print -- a student faced with the task of beginning a term paper or a professional writer who has been productive for years.

"I'm sure the problem has been around since people began to write," says Cynthia MacDonald, poet, psychoanalyst and co-founder of the UH Creative Writing Program.

MacDonald, who said she became a psychoanalyst partly because she was interested in writer's block, says the causes are as numerous, complex and varied as techniques for getting past it.

One cause may be lack of skills, which MacDonald says create a larger kind of block. People who lack strong writing skills may feel ashamed they can't write the way they think they are supposed to.

"For those people, being told 'It's what you're going to say that I care about, and I don't care about the mechanics of the writing' is often very freeing," MacDonald said.

The concepts of making ideals more important than mechanics is being practiced in some elementary school. MacDonald said she recently talked to a teacher in Galveston who tells students spelling and punctuation aren't what writing is all about, but added that the mechanics still have to be learned eventually. "The child in third grade who doesn't spell right doesn't have as big an investment as graduate students who can't spell, who can't get their thoughts and the things that seem so rich in their heads onto paper. Their problem is they don't know how to pick up the connective thread that is such an important part of writing," she says.

For writers who have both mechanical skills and organized ideals, the problem may be an internal clinic.

"I think those things go back to how early work was receive," says MacDonald. "Not just writing work, For example, if a two-year-old runs over to show a parent some muddy fingerprints on construction paper, saying 'Look what I've done!, the parent might say, 'You got your hands all dirty.'" '

"If that happens enough times, it sets a pattern. You see the light draining from the child's face."

The voice of the internal critic is closely related to the block caused by fear.

"Some kind of fear is behind all blocks -- fear that you won't be appreciated for what you've done or admired for what you've produced, fear that you might expose something to yourself or to others that you don't want exposed, that might be hurtful or painful," says MacDonald.

Those fears are more likely to manifest themselves in writer of subjective works like poetry or fiction. That may explain why people who work in more objective forms of writing don't understand the problem.

"I don't believe in writer's block," says Joseph Rice, who teaches technical writing in the College of Technology. "I'm about to start planning a rose garden, but I don't have a rose garden block." Like a lot of writers who have never experience blocking, Rice said it's just a matter of doing it.

Are blocked writers merely lazy? MacDonald says no.

"It seems like laziness. They feel tired; they turn on the TV. They don't do what they really want to -- Is that because they're lazy or because they're afraid of what they need to do?" MacDonald asks.

"I just think life's more complicated than just making up your mind to do it." she says. "Most people could plant rose gardens if they decided they wanted to, but they might not have much rose garden experience, and there might not be much writing on the subject."

"And, if the rose garden doesn't do well, we're really sad. We may call up "Garden Line" on one of the radio programs and try to find out what to do, but this is not really crushing," she says. "However, if we can't write our dissertation, we're not going to get a Ph.D."

"Or, we may write it, be we know we messed it up." One of the common explanations for that is actually another kind of writer's block -- not writing as well as you could have."

"It's the old 'I didn't really fail because I didn't really try excuse,'" she said. The excuse works well for people who habitually wait until the last minute to work on term papers.

"If you start writing you paper a month ahead of time, and its lousy, what excuse do you give?" asks MacDonald.

"If you did it the day before it was due, do you say "Oh well, if I'd taken more time...?"

There are writers who thrive on waiting until the last minute, people who get an adrenaline rush form producing under pressure.

This method has similarities to the rush of sexual release, says MacDonald, citing studies of medical students who were found to masturbate frequently before final exams.

For the writer who simply wants to experience the adrenaline rush of moving, circumventing or breaking through the big, bad bloc, MacDonald has some practical advice.

"All writing is divided into two parts," she says. "One is the finding part. That is where you from ideas, and you get them on paper. You form emotions and follow them -- some of them may jump -- they don't go logically."

"The second part is the editing function, which is actually the enemy of the finding function, " she says. "This is the part you learn in school." Apparently, Twain was right.

When the left-brain, critical editing function begins too soon, writing ceases. To keep that internal editor from critiquing your work too soon, MacDonald advises, "Tell it to shut up. Say 'Go away. I'm going to keep going.'" The goal is to assemble a quantity of ideas before attempting to refine the quality. "If you start to prune the rose garden when you've only got a little twig, you'll never get any roses," she says.




By Keith Rollins

Daily Cougar

In years past, when the average sports nut thought of track, Mike Marsh's name would not come to mind. Now, since his recent winning performance at the U.S. Track Trials, he cannot go unnoticed.

Even thought he has been on the international tract scene since making the 1988 Olympics as an alternate, back home, he is literally unknown. That is, until the trials.

Marsh, who now works out in Houston under the watchful eye of Cougar Head Coach Tom Tellez, sped to fourth place in the 100 meters, making him a member of the 4X100m relay team, and second in the 200m behind Baylor-ex Michael Johnson, but of UH-exes Carl Lewis and Leroy Burrell.

Because the relay team is favored in Barcelona, Marsh has a good chance of bringing home a gold medal. It is also a definite possibility he may be put into the elite multi-medalist list if the nationals anthem is played in his honor after the 200m event.

The exposure has been great fore the Los Angeles native that started his quest for sprinting greatness even before he had graduated from Hawthorne High School, a school know for its association with gangs and violence.

After a brilliant senior year, Marsh, along with teammate Henry Thomas, were all ears to college recruitment offers. Thomas, who was supposed to be the greatest sprinter since Carl Lewis, was selected by UCLA, and Marsh was snubbed, only receiving scholarship offers by small schools.

Marsh decided to join his teammate anyway and became a walk-on in 1986 for the Bruins.

That year, he was awarded a partial scholarship and started to improve greatly.

At the end of his sophomore year, Marsh was ranked No. 10 in the U.S. in the 100m and was given a full athletic scholarship.

At the age of 19, Marsh finished sixth in the U.S. Track Trials and went to his first Olympics in 1988 as an alternate in the 100m. He watched as Lewis was awarded the gold medal after Ben Johnson tested positive for anabolic steroids.

"I couldn't believe it. I was happy for Carl, but sad for the sport," Marsh said.

After a hamstring injury in 1989, Marsh was "running horribly" and needed help. That helping hand came from Lewis.

"He called me up one day and asked me if I wanted to come train down here. The next thing I knew, I was living and training here," Marsh said.

After that timely boost by Lewis, Marsh began his rise for the Olympics again, this time as a Santa Monica Track Club member and with a training facelift incorporated by Tellez.

"The change has meant a lot to me. It has definitely got me where I am today," Marsh said.




By Adam King

Daily Cougar

The Republican Party is often referred to in political circles as the rich man's party. Houston, then, is surely smiling since it will play host to the 1992 Republican National Convention in August.

The loyal GOP delegates representing their various states will be privy to a party the likes of which hasn't been seen since the 1990 Economic Summit; thus, entertainment must be found to fill the country dances and the ballroom bashes bound to take place.

Part of that job was accomplished when Ron Hodge, managing director of the Yellow Rose Exhibition Clogging Team, began to market his team to several booking agencies that were bidding for rights to provide entertainment for the convention.

According to Hodge, clogging is "a type of dance that is a combination of heritages and ethnic groups located in the Appalachian Mountains. These include Irish, German, Negro and American Indian."

In layman's terms, clogging is somewhat like tap-dancing, but it uses both the heel and the ball of the foot combined with a shuffling motion to create a syncopated sound, Hodge said.

Conventions that come to Houston find clogging to be an excellent form of entertainment, Hodge said.

"When people think of clogging, they think of country and western. They do not think of rock 'n' roll. That's what the market is," he said. "Unfortunately, it is not the identity I want for any clogging team. The market is the golden rule though.

"Country and western opens the door for clogging and is the key for the big money."

What does the market say about the Republican National convention?

"There's a rodeo scheduled for every night of the convention," Hodge said.

The direction the theme of the convention has taken can be traced directly to the mayor's office, Hodge said.

"Since Bob Lanier has been elected mayor, the convention will go more country. If Kathy Whitmire had been re-elected mayor the convention would have gone more cosmopolitan," he said. "I'll put in my two cents and say I voted for Bob Lanier because if this convention goes more country, (the team) will make more money."

In order to make any money at all, Yellow Rose had to be hired.

"The day after Houston received the Republican convention bid, I was on the phone," Hodge said, with a slight grim. "It took a concentrated marketing program, researching the people involved in providing the marketplace with convention services, and making repetitive contacts with those people."

Hodge only dealt with those companies he felt had the best chance of attaining contracts with the convention.

"I let them know we wanted to work with them."

The Yellow Rose Exhibition Clogging Team has been hired to dance every day of the convention which will take place on Aug. 15-21 throughout the Houston area. They will perform at the Farm and Ranch Club, Regal Ranch, the George R. Brown Convention Center and possibly the Astrodome and Astroarena.

"I believe our performance at the convention will not only help clogging locally, by statewide and nationally as well," Hodge said. "When one team is dancing in the spotlight, all cloggers are being represented."

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