COLLEGE OF EDUCATION ENDOWMENTS TO HELP READING SKILLS, TEACHER ED

by Scherilyn Ishop

Contributing Writer

The College of Education's $2.1 million in endowments will help fund the college's research this year, although budget cuts have diminished funds for some projects.

Research projects underway this year are the Detecting Reading Problems Program and the Teachers for Tomorrow project in association with the Bridge Program.

The Detecting Reading Problems project has suffered substantially from the recent budget cuts.

The program aims to identify reading problems and learning difficulties in children who are in danger of failing, said Barbara Foreman, Ph.D., associate professor of Educational Psychology.

The research involves collecting data on 900 kindergarten and first-grade students in the Alief school district. Individual testing of the children will serve as a gauge to recognize at-risk students.

Budget cuts, however, will diminish the resources for this particular program.

"Graduate students are helping us collect data and the teachers are really excited, but the headache is we're going to run out of money," Foreman said.

An original request of $900,000 was proposed to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; however, $175,000 in cuts were made across the board, leaving $760,000 for a four-year period.

The Teachers for Tomorrow project received $400,000 for a three-year period from AT&T. The programs aims to better prepare prospective teachers for urban schools in the 21st century.

The Teachers for Tomorrow project encourages future educators to spend time in an elementary or middle school as an alternative to teacher certification courses.

The research will be conducted in Lincoln Middle School in the Fourth Ward and Forester Elementary in southwest Houston. UH classes will be taught in these professional development schools.

"Students will have a chance to experience what teaching is all about and at the same time learn the theory of teaching. We're integrating teaching with theory," said Robert Houston, Ph.D., associate dean of Education.

Houston was one of five cities in the United States to receive the AT&T endowment for research projects in the professional development schools, Houston added.

Atlanta, New York, Jacksonville, Fla., and San Francisco are the other cities participating in the program.

The Marguerite Ross Barnett Bridge Program, another research area of the Teachers for Tomorrow project, received a $250,000 grant from Southwestern Bell for the implementation of the project.

Most of the funds come from the U.S. Department of Education as well as agencies and corporations such as the National Institute of Health, IBM, Southwestern Bell, AT&T and the Texas Coordinating Board.

The Bridge Program encourages minority high school students to commit to a college education.

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HELP AVAILABLE ADAPTING TO COLLEGE LIFE, CHOOSING MAJOR

by Florian R. Ho

News Reporter

No need for a "Dear Abby" at UH. There are seven full-time and one part-time counselor available on campus to help students deal with any crisis or problem they encounter.

"You name it, we talk about it," said Leonard Bohanon, psychologist and counselor at the Counseling and Testing center.

While enrollment and the number of students visiting the center has increased, the number of counselors has decreased. "Our budget has been cut over a period of years. We would love to be able to expand," said Kenneth Waldman, director of training and associate director of Counseling and Testing. "It's a struggle for us to see the amount of clients we have now."

UH has about half the counseling staff of other universities of similar enrollment, Waldman said. "University of Maryland has a staff of 25, University of South Florida, 20. We have seven and a half."

During 1988, approximately 3,000 individual counseling sessions were conducted while about 3,600 were conducted in 1990, said Waldman.

Most of the services are funded by the student services fee. "The counseling center receives about $600,000 from the funding allocation," said Dr. Gerald Osborne, director of counseling and testing. The figure, Osborne said, is "unfortunate because there is more distress, more issues to deal with, but less funds and counselors."

"The remaining funds come from local income, such as charges from clients with a need for more counseling," said Waldman.

Eight no-cost individual sessions are provided to students. For those who need to schedule more sessions, there is a fee. "Beginning with the ninth session, students are charged one dollar for every $1,000 in annual income," said Waldman.

For $10, enrolled students can take a series of tests to help them decide what career area they should pursue. The four-week vocational workshop compares patterns of interest and occupational skills, said Gisela Lin, psychology intern at the center. Students who can not commit to the four-week workshop are encouraged to speak to a counselor between 10 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. Monday to Thursday.

"Clearly there is an increase in the need for services, and a major increase in the severity of concerns," said Waldman, who sees problems such as sexual and childhood abuse being discussed now, whereas in 1979, they weren't.

Many requests have to do with some type of vocational help. "We get students in that have no idea what they want to major in, or they just need assurance that they have chosen the right field," said Bohanon.

Counselors are available by appointment 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Monday and Tuesday, and 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Wednesday to Friday. The center assigns at least two counselors to handle first time visitors, on a walk-in basis, Monday through Friday 10 a.m. to 1:30 p.m.

"UH has a fine counseling staff with outstanding professional skills. Some senior staff members do have private practices and our doctorate interns have completed everything except their internship," said Waldman.

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EDUCATION SYSTEM NEEDS OVERHAUL, PROBLEMS WON'T FADE, PROFESSOR SAYS

by Michelle Lacefield

News Reporter

American schools are not broken, but many need to be fixed, claimed Sylvia Pena, an associate professor of education at UH.

We need to acknowledge that there is a problem in the schoolhouse that cannot be ignored, said Pena Thursday night at the UH Hilton Hotel.

The forum where Pena spoke, sponsored by Phi Beta Kappa, discussed the salient issues in the 1992 presidential election and was led by UH President James Pickering.

Pena questioned the idea of privatization of our schools. Many people say that the public education system has failed our students, and private businesses should take over, said Pena.

"But, businesses fail everyday and the lack of integrity in business is just as rampant as in the educational system," said Pena.

Those favoring the privatization of schools point out that businesses plan for success but they assume that schools plan for failure. This may be true in some schools, said Pena, but many schools are very successful and do plan for success.

"I am not so sure that with our values as a society today, that the motivation towards conducting a school should be toward making a profit," said Pena.

For the most part, the motivation for those in the educational systems is clearly not profit, but is a commitment to help young people compose their lives, said Pena.

Yes, there are problems in the school system but there is a way to make them better, said Pena.

Children need to be stopped being labeled as failures, she said. Educators need to assume that all children are gifted instead of labeling "some as turkeys and some as eagles," said Pena.

Educators should stop giving children as young as six years old standardized tests, said Pena.

Educators should look into the idea of students wearing uniforms. This would cut down on all the differences between students, said Pena.

Schools need to be made smaller, according to Pena. They are too concerned with cost effectiveness instead of creating a body of scholars.

The bottom line is not can the schools be fixed, but rather do educators sincerely want to fix them, and when will they want to do something about it, said Pena.

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HRM STUDENTS RUN RESTAURANT, TASTE REWARDS OF SUCCESSFUL MANAGMENT

by John Varriale

News Reporter

The UH Hilton's Barron's restaurant dinner series provides a living, breathing laboratory for Hotel and Restaurant Management majors.

The series is run by students attending one of five sections of the capstone course in the hotel school, HRM 4347. The series runs Monday through Friday each week of the semester, and each class section is responsible for a different night of the week. Students are in charge of all aspects of restaurant operation, and a different cuisine is featured each night.

The hotel school has been running the series for three years and each year it attracts a larger crowd.

Restaurant Manager Beth Needham said, so far, the increased attendance has not been a problem. "It's not so much that the work is harder. They're (the students) working more efficiently."

The school has been criticized in the past for using students to help turn a profit for the school, but Needham said this criticism is unfair.

"Since we are a training facility, our main objective is not maximizing profits. Instead we try to provide the student with as realistic of an experience as possible including the bottom line -- making a profit," she said.

"A lot of the people who attend are family and friends of the kitchen and service managers," Needham said. "Part of their grade is how many people they get in and how effective their marketing is, so they get people from wherever they can get them," Needham said.

Teaching Assistant Robert Crawford said attendance varies depending on how well individual students market the program. Crawford said that he has seen as few as 15 people and as many as 100 attend the dinner series.

The students who work on the series are exposed to each of the different restaurant occupations. Students assume roles as severs, bartenders and cooks, as well as managers and marketers.

There are two management roles performed at the restaurant: the front-of-house manager and the back-of-house manager. The front-of-house manager is in charge of the hosts and waiters. The back-of-house manager supervises the kitchen staff, researches the type of food to prepare, and decides what and how much to make.

Managers are graded on how well they organize the dinner, their management skills and their ability to forecast how much food to prepare.

Those in attendance for tonight's event can register to win a weekend for two in the Adam's Mark Hotel. Reservations are recommended.

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'FAMILY VALUES' DIFFICUSLT TO DEFINE, DESPITE DEBATES

(CPS) - "Family values" is a hot-button issue in the presidential campaign that has provoked heated discussion on campuses.

Although widely used, the phrase is not easily defined, especially in the context of what family values mean for college students.

"There are a lot of issues within that term that affect students' lives," said Stacey Leyton, president of the United States Student Association.

"Many are returning students trying to support their families by finishing their education. You will find single mothers and single fathers returning to school. They must have access to bettering themselves and their families as tuition goes up, childcare is cut and programs are reduced."

Neither political party has succinctly been able to explain what is meant by family values in a time where single-parent households, single and divorced people, and gay and lesbian parents and other groups challenge the concept of what defines a traditional American family.

"Young people identify with embracing family values," said Tony Zagotta, president of College Republicans. "The Republican view is to strengthen the family and show concern for the family. Young people are looking for stability."

Jamie Harmon, president of College Democrats, said the term is "hard to define," but settled on calling it "traditional morality that young people think is important. Especially for young people, family values is the economy. It's hard to have family values when you don't have a home."

If there was a defining moment in this nebulous battle over values, it was perhaps when Vice President Dan Quayle assailed the plot of the TV show "Murphy Brown." "The media and Hollywood portrayed it as an attack on single mothers, (but) he was saying it was wrong to demean the role of fatherhood," Zagotta said. "I think what the vice president did was a good thing," he said.

Democratic presidential candidate Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton, and his running mate, U.S. Sen. Al Gore of Tennessee, believe their party upholds the belief that a family "is something inclusive, not exclusive," Harmon said.

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POLITICAL PARTIES SPLIT OVER WAYS TO PROVIDE FUNDING FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS

CPS -- Financial aid is emerging as a major campaign issue for college and university students as President Bush and his Democratic rival Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton actively court the youth vote.

Representatives of college organizations for the Democratic and Republican parties agree that student loans and funding for higher education are fundamental issues facing both candidates. What they disagree about is how to make college more accessible to more people.

"The biggest problem students face right now is funding and student loan debt," said Jamie Harmon, president of the College Democrats. "We now have a situation where some people aren't able to go to their school of choice or school at all because of lack of money. If they can get through, they're burdened with debt."

Tony Zagotta, president of the College Republicans, agreed that loans are a major issue facing students, but defended Bush's administration and its higher-education programs. Bush has proposed increasing the availability of student loans, but wants to cut back on the funding for grants.

"Democrats charge that this administration has been unfavorable to student loans. This is simply false," he said. "More is being given out than (in) any other administration."

Zagotta also slammed Clinton's proposed national trust for higher education.

Clinton has proposed a two-fold program to make higher education affordable. Students taking out government-guaranteed loans could pay them of through payroll deductions, or they could perform community service for two years.

"These don't have a lot of appeal. Young people want to enter the job market when they get out of college. They want choices and opportunity," Zagotta said. "While community service may sound fine, many would want to do other things."

Harmon described Clinton's plan as "revolutionary," saying the plan could "harness student idealism." If the plan is enacted, students could get jobs they really want to take after graduating from school, rather than feeling pressured to take a high-paying job they don't want in order to pay off school debts, Harmon said.

"Debt affects their first jobs," he said.

Also looming for Bush and the Republican Party are national polls that indicate young people are favoring the Democratic ticket, although some of the president's supporters refute this finding.

With three weeks left in the campaign, polls showed that Clinton had pulled ahead of Bush in popularity. Polls among young people -- those between 18 and 24 -- show strong support both for the Democratic Party and Clinton. Some of the results include:

* A Washington Post-ABC poll found that 61 percent of the respondents between the ages of 18 and 24 described themselves as Democrats, while 31 percent called themselves Republicans.

* A poll of registered voters under the age of 25 for The New York Times and CBS found that 55 percent of those polled defined themselves as Democrats and 37 percent as Republicans.

* The Wall Street Journal and NBC conducted a survey in August and found that 53 percent of 18- to 24-year-olds polled called themselves Democrats, compared with 26 percent who called themselves Republicans.

Mike Dabadie, a project director for Wirthlin Group in Washington, which is a survey firm that works for conservative groups and the Republican Party, acknowledged that Clinton is ahead in every age group polled. However, he said Bush is getting the most support from the 18-24 age group.

"There is no question that many people think our nation is off in the wrong direction," he said. "But data indicates younger voters identify with conservatism."

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ENTERTAIN ME

A weekly calendar of student-oriented activities

Extra! Extra!

*Free Movie Passes: "Of Mice and Men"

-8 p.m., Tuesday at AMC Meyerpark 14

-Pick up your pass at the Daily Cougar Offices, Communications Building, Room 160

10/12 Monday

UH Benefit: "Mama Has Your Lunch Ready"

-In celebration of the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' discovery of the new world, Mama Rizzo's Marinara Sauce and Grayson Mountain Waters will serve lunchtime pasta and beverages.

-11:00 a.m. - 2:00 p.m., Monday and Tuesday in Lynn Eusan Park

-Musical entertainment on Tuesday provided by Brian Black

-Pasta Bowls will be sold for $2 and flavored waters will be sold for $1

10/13 Tuesday

*SPB Film: "White Men Can't Jump"

-4 p.m. & 7 p.m. in the U.C., Houston Room

-Admission: $1, $2

*Brown Reading Series: Elizabeth Spencer & Molly Peacock

-8 p.m. at the Museum of Fine Arts

-Admission: $5 suggested donation

-Students and Senior Citizens Admitted Free

10/14 Wednesday

*Women in Communication

-1:00 p.m., Com. Bldg, Rm 202

-Open to all communication majors

*Concert: UH Jazz Orchestra

-7:30 p.m. in the Cullen Performance Hall

-Directed by Noe Marmolejo

-Will feature works by Paul Baker, Rob McConnell, Frank Mantooth and Pete Lengyel

-Sponsored by the Friends of the School of Music

-General Admission: $5

-Students and Senior Citizens: $3

10/15 Thursday

*CBA Industry Cluster Network: "Discover the Art of Networking"

-2:30 - 4 p.m. in Melcher Hall, Room 213

-Open to UH students, faculty & staff

-Admission is free

*Group Meeting: "The Missing Link"

-A new support group for UH students and faculty who have recently lost loved ones

-6 p.m. at Agnes Arnold Hall, Room 205

-A good turnout will ensure further group meetings

*SPB Film: "Pink Flamingos"

-7:30 p.m. in U.C., Houston Room

-Admission: $1, $2

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BERGER TAKES STAGE IN NEW POSITION

by Evan Krause

Contributing Writer

Sidney Berger, Ph.D., is a busy man.

He is the chairman of UH's drama department. He founded and is the producing director of the Houston Shakespeare Festival (HSF). Berger is president of the Shakespeare Theatre Association of America and is a member of the International Shakespeare Globe Centre Board.

He produces for UH's Children's Theatre Festival (CTF) and is a respected playwright and librettist.

Most recently Berger has accepted the position of Artistic Consultant at Stages Repertory Theatre.

"I will devote 8 hours a week to Stages. At this point the arrangement is for one year," Berger said.

Stages Repertory Theatre is unique because it is the only equity theatre in Houston. "An equity theatre hires professional union performers. Contracts and wages are set by the Union," Berger explained.

Berger's focus for the theatre is not purely artistic. He wants to develop a firm subscriber base. Stages' only financial support is through donations.

To achieve this, productions will be geared toward accessibility. However, Stages will maintain its personality as an Off-Broadway theatre. "We will be performing classics and musicals," said Berger, "but will continue to produce new plays."

Berger's affiliation with Stages is another tie that connects the UH Drama Department to Houston's professional theater community. UH theatre students enjoy a close working relationship with the HSF, CTF and the Alley Theatre.

"The next step for UH is to have a professional resident theatre on campus," said Berger.

This semester the Drama Department will produce three plays.

The first is Mark Rozovsky's version of <I>Strider<P>, an unusual account of life through a horse's eyes. The play opened October 2 and 3 at Lyndall Finley Wortham Theatre in the Communications Building.

Berger will direct Frank Falati's adaptation of <I>The Grapes of Wrath<P>. The play will be performed November 13-14 and 20-22.

The last production of the semester is <I>Happy Days<P> by Samuel Becket. Pulitzer Prize wining dramatist and UH instructor Edward Albee will direct.

"We welcome auditions from any UH student. Being a theatre major is not a requirement," Berger said.

For more information concerning performances contact the drama department at 743-3003.

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TWO TRASK DISCO RELEASES IN THE CAN

by Manuel Esparza

Daily Cougar Staff

There are two new British releases that are perfect for a town addicted to "trash disco". The Utah Saints' <i>Something Good<p> definitely has mass appeal, while The Supreme Love Gods' eponymous debut is a little more esoteric.

The Utah Saints, currently on tour with the Shamen, have that techno-drum beat commonly found in clubs all over town. Overlaid with keyboards, sequencers and every other gadget known to man, their sound manages to remain uncluttered.

As an insight to the duo's creative thought, two tracks, "What Can You Do For Me" and "Something Good," each have two different mixes. The Saints do sample, but only the best. On both tracks of "What Can You Do For Me" the sampled vocals are laid down on a bed of beat that is close to being entirely unlike the original. But it does work.

"Something Good" has shades of Kate Bush cresting atop a digitized wave of rave. Its extended version is just that; nothing new is added. One of the Saints' own creations, "Trance Atlantic Flight," is reminiscent of an early seventies tune, "Popcorn".

The Supreme Love Gods are a guitar pop group in the Manchester strain (Charlatains, Inspiral Carpets, et al). Their laid-back style is just north of reggae and south of dance.

The music is versatile. At low volumes one can lounge around the poolside, sipping rum punches. Max out the speakers and the party goes on all night. Using the slower tempo as a guide and not a limit, SLG puts out some very original music, yet they still retain the flavor of their genre.

The Supreme Love Gods are one of those bands that puts out an album to reach a greater audience, but shine best live. Listen closely and the intricacy of the arrangement reveals a great amount of work that went into the production.

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NO COLLEGE CAMPUS CRIME-FREE, SAYS RECENT STUDY

ONE OF FOUR COLLEGE WOMEN HAS BEEN RAPED OR ASSAULTED

CPS - The image of a quiet college campus may just be that -- image. Faculty, administrators and students are coming to terms with the reality that crime and violence take place in the most pastoral of settings.

"You will find crime on any college campus. You have a large concentration of people and valuable property, and the 17-25 age group is the most highly victimized group in the nation," said Bill Whitman, director of the Campus Safety and Security Institute.

Campuses nationwide have to cope with crime, from minor theft to murder, and only recently has the issue moved to the forefront of public awareness and acceptance that it does, indeed, exist.

"The first thing to recognize is that no campus is crime-free or violence-free," said Clarinda Raymond, co-director of the Campus Violence Prevention Center at Towson State University in Baltimore.

The U.S. Department of Education has published new rules in the Federal Register that, if enacted, would require colleges and universities to release an annual security report containing campus security policies and procedures as well as campus crime statistics.

"We need to educate parents and students. Campuses are not sanctuaries," said Whitman.

In a survey on college compliance with crime disclosure rules, Whitman wrote that "There have been too many documented cases of deception and cover-up for institutions to expect the public to take them at their word."

The Campus Violence Prevention Center found that out of 437 institutions responding to a national campus crime survey in 1990, there were eight on-campus murders, 429 sexual assault cases, 215 rapes, 139 strong-arm robberies, 95 violent incidents against gays and lesbians, 219 similar attacks against ethnic minorities and 259 reports of arson.

Consider some other national statistics:

*One out of every four college women has been raped or sexually assaulted.

*Ninety-five percent of violent crime on campus is related to drugs or alcohol.

*Eighty percent of campus crime involves student against student.

The most dangerous places on campuses are dorms, where more crime takes place than other areas on campuses, Raymond said.

"There is a lot of low-level crime, such as stealing from dorm rooms, which doesn't get reported. In cases of sexual assault, there is also a low level of reporting by students and colleges," said Alan McEvoy, chair of the Sexual Assault on Campus Conference, scheduled to be held in Orlando, Fla., in October.

McEvoy, who studies campus crime, said the crime with the most frequency on campuses is probably underage drinking and substance abuse, but "very little is probably done about it," he said.

Experts say that in cases of violent crime, especially in rape and sexual assault, alcohol plays a leading factor.

"Students should avoid alcohol. It is involved in almost every acquaintance rape," said Andrea Parrot, a professor at Cornell University.

Mary Koss, a professor at the University of Arizona conducted a 1985 survey on 32 campuses, in which 15.4 percent of college women recalled an incident since their 14th birthday that met the legal definition of rape. Eight of 10 rapes involved someone the victim knew and 57 percent of the rapes happened on a date, her survey found. At least 50 percent of the victims and 75 percent of their attackers had used intoxicants a the time of the assault.

Despite these statistics, there is still reluctance to report such crimes to campus authorities. Koss' study found that less than 5 percent of college student rape victims reported the assaults to the police; almost half told no one.

Parrot gave several reasons why sexual assaults aren't reported:

* The victim knows the assailant and they may have common friends. She may be afraid that their friends would take sides, and she wouldn't be believed.

* She may have been drinking, and the perception would be that she "asked" for the assault.

* Friends may tell her it really wasn't rape.

* There may be pressure from her family or the institution not to report the assault because of reputation, either for the victim or the school.

There are no standard mechanisms to report crime on campuses. In some cases, the resident adviser is told of the crime; in other cases, the administration may get involved in the investigation. The campus police department, or city or county authorities, may be notified of any crime.

This lack of uniform reporting procedures in changing somewhat, at least in the area of rape and sexual assault. The Higher Education Reauthorization bill, which President Bush recently signed into law, includes the Campus Sexual Assault Victims Bill of Rights Act.

The bill requires colleges and universities that receive federal funds to develop a campus sexual assault policy that mandates procedures to follow after an assault has occurred, educational programs to promote awareness of rape and counseling services. The schools must also have the option of rescheduling classes and changing residence situations to prevent contact between the victim and alleged assailant.

Experts in campus safety maintain that only through education can students learn how to avoid crime. It's not so much that crime on campus is rising, but what colleges are seeing is more violent crime, said Raymon, with the Campus Violence Prevention Center. "Until things change, students must remain vigilant," she said.

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FIVE USL ATHLETES CHOOSING LITIGATION TO SOLVE DIFFERENCES

LAFAYETTE, La. (CPS) - Four former University of Southwestern Louisiana female volleyball players are suing the university for damages as a result of a series of incidents that occurred during the school's 1991 volleyball season.

In a second suit, a former football player is seeking $44 million for alleged libelous statements by the school newspaper and denial of due process by the university's athletic department.

The four women charged that volleyball coach Cheryl Lambert made slanderous comments to the L'Acadien yearbook staff about them, violated NCAA rules by favoring certain players, and falsely accused a player of lying. The last accusation, the suit charges, resulted in a player's arrest.

The story in the student publication described how Lambert suspended the four players from the Lady Cajun volleyball team after she suspected they brought liquor with them on a road trip.

The suit also charged that the players were sexually discriminated against by the university because men's sports receive more funding than women's activities.

In addition, the plaintiffs' charge that the school's athletic director, Nelson Stokely, and associate athletic director, Nelson Schexnayder, were negligent in hiring Lambert because "more capable" applicants for her job were passed over.

Besides Lambert, Schexnayder and Stokely, the copy chief of the L'Acadien, Trent Meyers, has been named a defendant in the case for having published Lambert's comments about the players.

Meyers is charged with not verifying the validity of Lambert's comments before publishing the story.

In a second lawsuit against the university, a former football player is seeking $44 million alleging libelous statements in the school newspaper, The Vermilion, and denial of due process by the athletic department.

Gregory Laxey was suspended indefinitely from the football team after Lafayette parish police arrested him on Aug. 4 on three counts of distributing crack cocaine.

Laxey charges that the university voided his athletic scholarship without a hearing to determine whether or not the charges were valid.

In addition, the case states that an article written by The Vermilion's sports editor and published on Aug. 21 led the public to believe that Laxey was "selling drugs to youngsters in the community."

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TEXTBOOK PRICES ON THE RISE WITH NO END IN SIGHT

CPS - It's not your imagination - the price of college textbooks is rising.

A study by the National Association of College Stores backs up statistically what bookstore managers and students at the checkout line already know: book prices keep edging up.

Increases in publishers' production costs, shipping and freight and other costly elements in the publishing industry all add up, and students and campus bookstores are feeling the pinch as costs are passed along.

"A university bookstore is a place where the faculty orders books and publishers send the books to us," said Ron Hatley, director of the University of Houston-Clear Lake Bookstore. "We're happy warehouses that people are unhappy with."

One study published by the association found that of 100 widely used freshmen and sophomore textbooks, the average percentage increase from 1991 to 1992 was 4.3 percent; from 1987 to 1992, 37.6 percent; and from 1982 to 1992 104 percent.

Another study the association cited was a survey that studied the price increases of 85,000 textbooks. Nearly 22,000 had a price increase from publishers from February through July 1992 of an average $1.75. Other price increases from the study (the yearly figures are based on a February to February tie period) include: 1991 to 1992, $2.65 or, 9.1 percent; 1990 to 1991, $2.70, or 10 percent; and 1989 to 1990, $2.54, or 9.5 percent.

While the yearly figures may not induce sticker shock, the cumulative effect can be disheartening, bookstore managers said.

"It is starting to be a hardship. Our bookstore is expected to make money, so it could impact profits," said Susan Moore, who is manager of the mesa State College Bookstore in Grand Junction, Colo.

School officials are seeing more students who buy a book, copy the needed pages, and return the book for a refund. In other cases, several students may buy one copy and share it among themselves.

"I know there are students who go to dad's copy machine and copy the book," Moore said. "Whether it's legal or not, it's happening."

Charles Moss, who is the course book buyer at Missouri Southern State College in Joplin, said the school's campus bookstore has a textbook rental system. Students generally pay $5 per credit hour to rent up to three books, and receive $2 back when they return the books in good condition.

"Students aren't aware of the price of a book unless they lose it," he said. Most students rent books, although some purchase the texts, he said.

Moss, who has been employed at the bookstore for 15 years, said book prices have risen 8 to 10 percent annually. "I see no solution. it just seems like the trend is increasing prices for everything," he said.

Textbook prices are generally adjusted twice a year, once in the winter and once in the summer. And this adjustment, made by publishing companies, is usually higher. Moore said she ordered a book for a summer semester class in May that was priced at $43, and six weeks later the price went over $50.

Moore said that since Mesa State is a growing school, book sales are constantly going up. "It's too new in this semester, but we have a lot of books sitting on the shelves," she said.

Books can be ordered two ways. A department can adopt standard books that the bookstore orders for each semester, or professors can order books for their classes as needed.

And for some bookstore managers and students, the rub enters when professors order books without taking student's budgets into mind. "Professors don't know the costs. The ones who are concerned about price will check with the bookstore," Moore said.

Gisela Keller, who is a book buyer for the Varsity Mart at North Dakota State University, told the National Association of College Stores about a professor who ordered a book for a pharmacy class that cost $110. The instructor wanted to order 50 books, and Keller said despite the bookstore's hesitancy, "he was insistent. Sometimes, the instructors seem not to have the welfare of the students in mind," she told the Campus Marketplace, a trade journal.

Some instructors are creating anthologies for their classes, and getting publisher's' permission to copy sections of books and compile them into one "course pack," an increasingly popular alternative to buying a number of textbooks.

Students also can buy used textbooks, but books are now updated every three to four years, so the lower price doesn't last long.

"Students are sharing, copying and doing without," said Hatley, at UH-CL. "There's a lot of price resistance out there."

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PENDING LEGISLATION TO IMPOSE GRADUATE STUDENT TAXES ON SCHOLARSHIPS , GRANTS, AND LOANS

(CPS) - A House bill that would rescind a 17 percent tax on graduate and professional students' stipends, scholarships and fellowships faces little chance of passing this year because of Congress' reluctance to eliminate taxes.

It's all over for this year. The president is talking about vetoing anything that looks like a tax increase," said Thomas Linney, director of government relations for the Council of Graduate Schools. "My fear is that the political season is upon us."

The 1986 Tax Reform Act put a 17 percent tax on all scholarships and other money awarded to post-baccalaureate students in graduate and professional schools. The Internal Revenue Service is expected to begin actively enforcing the tax this year, officials said.

Revenue from the tax was expected to produce about $550 million from 1986-91, if the tax had been fully enforced. Scholarship money used for living expenses and travel is taxed under the act.

"We opposed the bill at the time because we knew it would be a hardship on graduate students," Linney said. "Congress, in its fervor for its tax reform, saw college graduate students as privileged people. But we know graduate students live on very little money."

The bill, co-sponsored by U.S. Rep. Tom Lewis, R-Fla., and the National Association of Graduate and Professional Students (NAGPS), was introduced in March and hasn't been scheduled for a hearing yet.

"Perceptions are that graduate students are wealthy. We aren't. I don't know if its anti-academic or what, but it's sad," said Joy Ward, executive coordinator for NAGSP. "The tax is not on a wealthy segment of the population. To tax the bottom population is absolutely ridiculous."

Ward, who is working on her master's degree in management at Memphis State University in Tennessee, said the graduate student population has changed in the past 15 years. The norm used to be that a college or university graduate went directly to graduate or professional school, when more stipends and assistantships were available than there are currently, she said.

Now, Ward said, there are more non-traditional students going to graduate school who can't rely on their parents for financial assistance, and they are competing for stipends, scholarships and assistantships from an ever-shrinking pool of available funds.

There are approximately 1.8 million graduate and professional students in postbaccalaureate programs. There are no estimates available on the number of students receiving financial assistance through awarded monies.

"There was a lot of funding available, so many undergraduates went right away because money was available," Ward said. "We're seeing less money now, so people are now not going to graduate school."

Many graduate programs prohibit students from holding secondary jobs, so they either have to break rules or depend on loans, stipends and other awards, or savings, to pay for school. That's why the 17 percent tax hurts, said Richard Knaub, who is working on his Ph.D. in zoology at Clemson University in South Carolina.

"It's a major devastation. I haven't gone on food stamps yet, but I'm eligible. What disturbs me is that when we as a country do not value education enough to support it, then I see us slipping into a second-rate status as far as the nation goes," he said.

Knaub broke graduate school rules and held four part-time jobs last year. He said tuition, room and board at Clemson cost him $9,000. He received a department stipend of $8,500, before taxes. After taxes, the stipend was reduced to approximately $7,200. Without outside work, that's all he had to live on.

"The rules say you can't have a second job if you're on an assistantship. Where does that leave graduate students? In my department, most students have second jobs," he said.

Linney, with the Council of Graduate schools, said the rationale for the 17 percent tax was that if minimum-wage workers paid taxes, so should graduate and professional students who receive money for their education.

"Our rebuttal was that they should be protected now, and think of it as a tax deferral, because these students will be getting a lot more money down the line and will be paying much higher taxes after they graduate," he said.

"Without the tax, the extra money could be going to health insurance or helping to pay the rent," said Ward, at Memphis State. "It hurts the people who are the ones who are going to help make the future."

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NATIONAL BRIEFS

Harvard #1

(CPS) -- Harvard University has been named the country's top-ranked university for the third year in a row, according to U.S. News & World Report.

Princeton, Yale and Stanford trailed behind Harvard for the past two years, and this year was no exception. The only university to break the monopoly in 1992 was the California Institute of Technology, which placed fifth.

Williams College (Mass.), a 200-year-old liberal arts school, was voted best small college in the issue. Williams was followed by Amherst College (Mass.), Swarthmore College (Pa.), and Wellesley College (Mass.) in the small liberal arts category.

Worcester Polytechnical Institute (Mass.) was selected the best regional university in the North; Wake Forest University (N.C.) in the South; Illinois Wesleyan University (Ill.) in the Midwest; and Trinity University (Texas) in the West.

St. Mary's College in Maryland was selected the best regional liberal arts College in the North; Spelman College (Ga.) the best in the South; Wittenberg University (Ohio) in the Midwest; and Southwestern University (Texas) took the honors in the West.

Juilliard School (N.Y.) was selected the best specialty school in the arts; Babson College (Mass.), the best business school, and Harvey Mudd College (Calif.) won top honors for American engineering schools.

The 450 colleges and universities listed in the magazine were ranked on reputation, selectivity, faculty resources, financial resources and student satisfaction.

 

Bomb threat

LAKE FOREST, Ill. (CPS) -- Four Lake Forest College students who called in a bomb threat as part of a class assignment were found guilty of conduct charges.

The case began with an assignment in a class on deviant behavior. According to interviews with students, Professor Jennifer Wallace told the class that their first assignment would be to commit an act of deviance, the Lake Forest Stentor reported.

One student noted that the professor warned students, "You guys will have to suffer the consequences." Although she didn't specifically prohibit the assignment from being illegal, another student said it was clear the deviant acts were not supposed to be malicious.

The bomb threat was made Aug. 28 to the Dean of Students Office.

On Sept. 16, a student was found guilty of phoning in the bomb threat by the school's Conduct Board and was given an administrative warning and a judicial citation. Three other students were found guilty of conspiracy and received administrative warnings.

According to Don Craft, director of security, the assignment has been made in the class before and resulted in some trouble in previous years.

Last year, "someone went to the president's home and parked a car on his front lawn," Croft said.

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