by Meagan McGovern

Daily Cougar Staff

To answer students' questions about the future of UH as it faces imminent state budget cuts and internal restructuring, four faculty members and UH's president will hold an open "Town Hall" meeting tomorrow at noon on Satellite Hill.

The meeting, sponsored by the Students' Association, will include President James Pickering, Dean of Students William Munson, Vice President for Student Affairs Elwyn Lee, Law Professor Steven Huber and Faculty Senate Chairman Bill Cook.

The five men will speak briefly about the reshaping and then answer questions from the audience.

Huber, the chair of the University Planning and Policy Council, said the forum is a way to let students express their opinions.

"Everything about the reshaping should be on the table and out in the open. This is a good way to let people raise the concerns they have," he said.

The UPPC is overseeing the reshaping.

Pickering said the format, which involves panel members sitting outdoors in front of students, is a good one. "We've been hearing more and more about the Town Hall format. Clinton used it in his campaign," he said.

Meetings like this are essential in keeping people informed, as well as letting leaders know what students are concerned about, the president said.

"It's very easy to get out of touch," Pickering said. "This format enables us to have a conversation about ideas."

Lee agrees. "We want people to feel involved in the decision-making process. They ought to have access to the people making choices. The more discussion, the better."

Munson said he has no set ideas to put forth at the meeting, but will try to answer students' questions in general. "I think my role there is basically a resource person," he said.

Some students may know very little about the restructuring process, and this format gives them a good opportunity to both learn and respond, Munson added.

Kevin Jefferies, vice president of student affairs for the Students' Association, said this meeting is the best way to inform students directly about the reshaping.

"If I were a student who didn't know what was going on," he said, "I'd be petrified. How do students know that they aren't getting screwed in some major way? How do they know which departments will be affected?"

Because the state is projecting a $5 billion to $6 billion short fall for the next fiscal year, the university is trying to redirect UH's resources to areas where hard-to-come-by funding will be the most effective.

UH administrators and faculty have been scrutinizing programs since July, trying to determine which ones warrant priority treatment. Programs and areas not in tune with those priorities will be changed or streamlined.

Reshaping was designed to begin before the next legislative session. Any changes that result from the restructuring will begin in the fall '93 semester.






by Michica N. Guillory

Daily Cougar Staff

Two students were robbed at gunpoint in Cambridge Oaks Apartment's parking lot Sunday evening after three people followed the students home from Popeye's restaurant.

One of the students, a 20-year-old female from UH, recognized a Chevy Blazer from Popeye's when it followed the car she and her friend were in through the complex's security gate.

"The driver, a 25-year-old male from TSU, was approached first by a man with a silver small caliber semi-automatic handgun," UHPD Lt. Brad Wigtil said.

According to a statement made by the victim, the black male said, "This is a (car) jack --move! Give it up -- give up the keys now!"

Two black unarmed females approached the UH student and demanded her wallet and then they got back into the Blazer, Wigtil said.

The male suspect then reached into the TSU student's pocket and took $6 and the keys to the car.

After a failed attempt to start the car, the suspect opted for the stereo amplifier which he ripped off the mount, Wigtil said.

He also grabbed the female's purse, which was left behind by his accomplices.

The unidentified man and the women left in a blue Blazer with tinted windows

The two students, whose names are being withheld because of the on-going investigation, were unharmed.

It is uncertain if last weekend's shooting in lot 6A is related to this robbery and aggravated assault.

"The weapons used were different so it leads me to believe it may not be the same man," Wigtil said. "If we get a suspect in one of the cases, we will ask the victims in the other case if it is the same person."

However, Wigtil said students should not put themselves in danger if they know they are being followed.

"We strongly urge students to drive over to the police station instead of a parking lot," he said. The station is located at entrance 11 on Wheeler Avenue but students should use the entrance facing Cougar Place.

The male suspect is described as being 20 to 25 years old, 5 feet 7 inches and 170 pounds. He has a medium brown complexion with a mustache and thick eyebrows.

He was wearing a white and blue baseball cap, a horizontally blue and white striped shirt and stone-washed jeans.

He wore a white, beaded necklace with a white cross on it.

"His necklace is something most people don't wear everyday," Wigtil said. "It would be a good identifier."

The first female suspect and driver of the Blazer was described as being 17 to 19 years old, 5 feet 4 inches and 140 pounds.

She also has a medium brown complexion and a large mole on her right cheek. Her hair was curly and in a ponytail which was about shoulder length.

She was wearing a nylon jacket with blue writing on it. The jacket may have had a Sport Team logo on it. She also had on a dark-colored shirt and tight, black stretch pants.

The second female was also between 17 and 19 years old. She is approximately 5 feet 2 inches and weighs 120 pounds.

Her hair was done in numerous dreadlocks which were about shoulder length. She was wearing a black silk shirt and tight black pants.

If anyone has any information, please call UHPD at 743-0600.






by Melissa Neeley

Daily Cougar Staff

Campus convenience stores are dipping deeper into students' pockets by marking up prices as high as 60 percent more than their wholesale costs.

Although the ideal mark up to maintain the store's operation is 46 percent, many items are priced higher, Oberholtzer Hall Food Service Director Calvin Dunne said.

"We judge the mark-up of products by the market analysis of those convenience stores around us. We go to the convenience stores and try to be competitive with them," he said.

The prices of items in the Oberholtzer Hall's Late Night Store are very comparable to those of convenience stores like Stop-n-Go, Dunne said. The campus store prices, however, cannot compare to grocery stores like Kroger because of the different volumes each deals with, he added.

"Many students don't realize the difference between retail costs and convenience store costs. What these giant store chains do is say, 'Hey come over here and get this six pack of cokes for 99 cents,' but they get your money some place else," Dunne said.

However, some students living in the residence halls say the convenience stores in the Moody Towers and Quadrangle, both operated by America Restaurant Association, are taking advantage of them by selling products at inflated prices.

Although prices at these convenience stores are competing with off-campus stores, they still have no justification for being so high, said Ginger Gish, a junior RTV major.

"They have a captured audience. On my board card, my meals are already paid for so it is the only place that I can get equivalency when I'm not able to eat (in the cafeteria)," she said.

"It's not that the prices are a little higher; if you see the percentages, you realize the extent of how much higher they are," Parle said. He compared prices of such items like Dr. Pepper, Chapstick, gum and Snicker's bars from the convenience store at the O.B Hall to those at Phar-mor and Kroger.

Freshman Spanish major Joseph Parle said the price comparisons between these stores revealed students were paying sometimes more than 100 percent for the same product if they bought it at the Late Night Store.

Students living in residential housing buy meal plans, which include Cougar Express, a feature enabling students to purchase items like candy, gum and lunch items at the residence halls convenience stores.

Because Parle's parents live in Houston, he visits them frequently and many of his Cougar Express punches are left unused, he said.

To use some of these punches, Parle decided to go to the convenience store one night and was shocked when he was charged prices he considered excessive.

Parle worked at a Randall's grocery store for three years and said he was familiar with the average prices of the items at the Late Night Store.

"They have absolutely no competition and no reason to lower their prices. They should have a group of students to talk about the prices with them," he said.

Parle said he admits he is unfamiliar with how these convenience stores calculate their profit, but he would like to know why the prices are so high.

"Last year, it was six Snickers bars to a punch (on the Cougar Express card), but now it is only five. Convenience stores, especially in a recession, haven't been increasing their prices like that," Parle said.

Don Gulis, a senior majoring in industrial distribution who lives in Cougar Place, said prices at these convenience stores should be cheaper than those off campus.

"Most of us can't afford the prices that they advertise. They shouldn't make that much of a profit off us," Gulis said.

Dunne said he realizes some students feel like The Late Night Store is taking advantage of them because they have no other place to go, but the campus stores are only competing with other convenience stores.

Most students who have a legitimate complaint can voice it to him, Dunne said. If he cannot straighten out the problem, Dunne said he will at least try to talk with the student to exchange points of view.






by Deborah Hensel

Daily Cougar Staff


A campus-wide alcohol policy is one of the Sexual Assault Task Force's recommendations that will be submitted to UH President James Pickering in January as a part of the general policy on sexual assault.

Law professor Laura Oren, who is assisting SATF Chair Cynthia Freeland in writing an executive summary of the task force's findings, said the alcohol policy is being reviewed because alcohol is sometimes a factor in incidents of acquaintance rape.

Currently, the interim alcohol policy prohibits drinking or possessing alcoholic beverages on campus grounds. According to this definition, the term "grounds" does not include the interior of buildings on campus.

Another issue the group discussed was the university's role in disciplinary action. Dean of Student Affairs Elwyn Lee cited a hypothetical case of sexual assault in which the victim presses charges with the DA's office.

Lee said in that example, the administration's role should be to suspend disciplinary action until a criminal court decision could be reached.

Lee also said that in cases of date rape where the victim may be reluctant to file criminal charges, provisions should still be made for disciplinary action.

Monday, the task group reviewed components of the policy draft they propose to present in January.

A comprehensive section based on several weeks of investigation by the task force includes:

*campus crime statistics

*building and grounds information; call box locations

*a comparison of policies in effect on other college campuses

*general statistics and community services available from the Houston Area Women's Center

*education and prevention programs

*clarification of student judiciary proceedings and student conduct codes

*survivor support services available from the Health Center and Counseling and Testing Center

*dormitory/RA policies, train-ing and reporting requirements

*current policies regarding notification of incidents on campus








The Lady Cougars will be hitting the hoops against sixth ranked Stephen F. Austin at 7:00 p.m. in Hofheinz Pavilion tonight. Both Houston and SFA compiled over 20 wins and received bids to the NCAA Championship Tournament last season.

Tickets are $1.00 for students, $3.00 for non-students.


Houston kicks off World AIDS Day today with a display of unity in the rotunda of City Hall under the theme, "A Community Commitment."

From 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., six area organizations will foster awareness of the HIV disease by providing information on prevention, counseling, testing and treatment.

Additional data on local, national and worldwide scope of the disease will also be available.

As of July 1992, 6,758 people in Houston have been diagnosed with AIDS. Of those, 4,543 or 67 percent have died.

Nationally, 230,179 people have been diagnosed; 150,114 of those have died.

The World Health Organization estimates 10 million to 12 million people worldwide have been infected with HIV, and more than two million of them have gone on to develop AIDS.

The joint local effort is sponsored by the Houston Department of Health and Human Services; Over the Hill, Inc.; Amigos Volunteers in Education and Services, Inc.; the Association for the Advancement of Mexican Americans; Houston Crackdown and the Names Project, Inc.


UH Community Projects Director Marcia Sanderson has been named interim director of the Children's Protective Services Training Institute.

Founded in 1991, the institute provides training for 2,400 CPS supervisors and workers in Texas. It is run by a consortium of graduate schools of social work at UH, San Antonio's Our Lady of the Lake, University of Texas in Arlington and University of Texas in Austin.

"The CPS Training Institute provides skilled people, who are doing a tough job, the training they need to make their complex and difficult tasks somewhat easier," Sanderson said.

CPS' goal is to develop innovative technology related to state-of-the-art education and training efforts. The institute is also designed to increase partnership activities between CPS and the four social work schools around the state.

Sanderson is also the director of UH's Graduate School of Social Work.


One of the most dramatic winter festivals is Cajun Country Mardi Gras, which many perceive as rougher and wilder than the New Orleans celebration.

The festival includes masked men on horseback riding through the country singing medieval begging songs, chasing chickens and terrifying their neighbors.

UH associate professor of Folklore and English, Carl Lindahl, will present slides and a discussion of this 'folkloric' event at 6 p.m. Dec. 6. He will focus on why the various winter festivals have so much in common, and how country Mardi Gras dramatizes both the ancient past and the present reality.

For more information about this event, call Lisa Fisher, program coordinator of the Orange Show, at 926-6368.


The National Library of Poetry has announced that $12,000 in prizes will be awarded this year to over 250 poets in the North America Open Poetry Contest. The poem should be no more than 20 lines, and the poet's name and address should appear on top of the page. Entries must be post- marked by Dec. 31.

The deadline for the contest is Dec. 1, 1992. The contest is open to everyone and there's no entry charge.

To enter, send one original poem, any subject and any style, to the National Library of Poetry, 11419 Cronridge Dr., P.O. Box 704-ZW, Owing Mills, MD 21117.


Join the Houston Happy Hikers on Dec. 12 and 13 in Bear Creek Park for a free, non-competitive, healthy walking event.

For more information, call 493-1915.







by Karen Kovatch

Generation X Press

Although the short-term job picture may not look bright, there's some good news for college students preparing to enter the job market.

The U.S. Department of Labor recently projected that despite the nation's struggling economy, 24 million more jobs will be available throughout the 1990s and into the early 21st Century.

According to the 1992 Occupational Outlook released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), most of these jobs will require advanced education.

The Occupational Outlook looks at employment trends over a 13-year period -- the 1992 report focuses on 1992 to 2005.

In compiling the Occupational Outlook, the BLS placed jobs from various industries into several categories. Based on examinations of economic, social and technological trends, estimates of future demand for these jobs were produced.

The BLS suggests changing technology and business practices combined with society's shifting needs for goods and services will restructure the work force, creating employment in many industries and unemployment in others.

The 1992 report indicates those industries expected to show the greatest rates of growth tend to employ workers with college degrees.

Factors such as advanced technology and increased foreign competition have limited job opportunities for individuals possessing only high school diplomas.

Employment in manufacturing, once a major source of jobs for workers lacking college preparation, has declined steadily since 1979 as an education and repairing or replacing bridges and roads will contribute to the need for government workers.

In addition to summarizing changes anticipated in the labor force, the Occupational Outlook provides detailed employment data for jobs in several categories.

Here's a look at the BLS forecast for jobs in the following areas:

•Executive, administrative and managerial -- Jobs in this area are expected to grow faster than average as a result of more complex business practices and economic growth. Due to large numbers of applicants and more technical requirements for jobs in this category, the BLS suggests job seekers with work experience, specialized training or graduate degrees and computer skills will have the most success.

•Professional specialty -- these jobs include engineers, architects, lawyers, teachers, computer researchers and technicians, social and recreational workers, performing artists, etc.

Although this group as a whole is expected to grow faster than average, the BLS says growth rates for individual jobs within the group will vary.

Physical therapists, operations research analysts, human services workers and computer analysts are projected to grow faster than average whereas librarians, musicians, physicists and astronomers, mining, nuclear and petroleum engineers will grow slowly. Most of the new jobs in this category are expected to be in education and health services.

•Technicians and related support occupations -- Technology will create rapid employment growth for some jobs in this category and trigger declines in others. While the number of computer-related jobs is expected to rise, the BLS anticipates the need for broadcast technicians and air traffic controllers will be reduced as a result of labor-saving technology.

The expanded need for health services will contribute to significant growth in health-related progressions.

In terms of overall employment, the BLS reports jobs in this category will grow faster than those in any other.

•Marketing and sales - The need for financial, travel and other services provided by jobs in this group is expected to stimulate average growth. But the BLS predicts this growth will be slower than it has been in previous years because a majority of the jobs are in slow-growing industries such as retail and wholesale trade.

A large number of both full- and part-time positions are expected to open for cashiers and retail sales workers as a result of high turnover rates.

According to the report, well-trained, personable individuals who enjoy selling will have the best opportunities.

•Administrative support - Although this group will continue to provide the largest number of jobs, growth between 1992 and 2005 is expected to be slower than average.

Increased automation will reduce the need for typists, word processors, bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks and phone operators. However, the need for teacher aides, receptionists and information clerks should grow.

Many occupations in this category have high turnover rates. As a result, job opportunities, though slow-growing, are projected to be abundant.

•Service occupations - The BLS expects jobs in this category to grow faster than average due to a growing population that requires the services these industries provide.

While growing concern over crime is predicted to increase the number of guards employed, employment growth for police officers is only expected to be average due to cuts in local government spending.

Health services occupations including home health aides, medical assistants, and nursing aides are projected to grow faster than average in response to the aging population and expanding health care industry.

The BLS reports that health care professionals will make up the largest number of the overall increase predicted for this group.

•Mechanics installers and repairers -- Employment is expected to grow at an average rate due to continued reliance on mechanical and electronic equipment, but projections for growth vary for each occupation within the group.

For example, computer and office machine repairers will be among the fastest-growing jobs as a result of expanded computer use, while communications equipment mechanics, repairers and installers jobs will decline because of labor-saving technology.

The above forecast offers job seekers quick access to information on employment prospects in various industries but is only part of the job search.

The BLS suggests people should match their goals and abilities to the tasks involved with a job when they begin to look for employment. Other factors worth consideration are the education required for a position and job location.

The Occupational Outlook Handbook offers detailed data on a variety of jobs, including information on the nature of the work, qualifications and wages.






(CPS) -- While college pot smoking has taken a dramatic plunge over the past decade, marijuana has made a comeback in the past five years as some students battle for its legalization for political and health reasons.

The '90s may see the return of bell-bottoms, tie-dyed T-shirts and peace symbols, but it's not likely the Weed will ever be the life of the party that it once was in the '60s and '70s, researchers said.

"Marijuana use is going down a lot among college students," said Joyce Buchanan, a research assistant at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, where extensive studies on college drug use are conducted.

There has been, however, a resurgence of festivals and rallies where student activists, between sets of rock 'n' roll, extol marijuana's virtues as a plant that relieves symptoms of AIDS, cancer and glaucoma. Hemp can also be used, they remind audiences, to make paper, clothes and textiles.

But politicizing pot doesn't necessarily mean smoking it.

The Institute for Social Research found that pot smoking among college students has dropped almost by half since 1980, though it has shown a slight increase between 1990 and 1991.

In 1980, for example, 7.2 percent of 1,000 college students surveyed admitted to smoking pot on a daily basis, while in 1991, 1.8 percent of the same number admitted daily smoking.

Also in 1980, 34 percent of the students admitted smoking marijuana 30 days before the survey, and in 1991, only 14.1 admitted they had.

The surveys reflected that in 1980, 51.2 percent of college students surveyed said they smoked pot in the year before the survey, while in 1991, 26.5 percent said they had smoked pot in the past year.

Another recent survey from the Parents Resource Institute for Drug Education (PRIDE) reflects that drug use among young people rose slightly last year, reversing a three-year trend, and that pot usage is up among high school seniors.

Pot's overall drop in campus popularity may be because it is so costly, says Doug McVay, an activist with Cannabis Action Network and the Hemp Tour, which arranges festivals on college campuses and had a popular booth at the recent Lollapalooza tour.

"For the past 10 years, the price has gone up, though the quality has never changed. In 1982, commercial-grade pot went for $50 to $60 an ounce, and now it is $150 to $200 per ounce, $400 to even $1,000 for the finest," McVay said.

McVay said marijuana, once thought of as a "lower-class drug," has now achieved some status among young people, probably due to its high price. Cocaine has lost status now that crack has become a street drug, he said.

"We have a former pot smoker in the White House, too," McVay said about president-elect Bill Clinton. "He made a bad joke about it, but both he and Al (Gore) have smoked the weed."

People "started coming out of the closet" about pot in 1988, when Alan Ginsburg lost a spot on the Supreme Court after admitting he used the drug.

Many college students also are aware cigarettes and alcohol, which can destroy health, are legal, and they don't understand why marijuana is not available to sick people.

In spite of numbers showing the contrary, some say that pot is making a comeback on campuses.

"The government says that there are 20 million pot users, but we say there are 40 million," said Steve Bloom, senior editor of High Times magazine, a New York-based publication that touts the virtues of hemp.

"Pot is making a comeback on college campuses. The times are changing, there is a shift in the political environment. This is a new generation coming up who is rebellious. They're not the status quo like the Reagan kids," he said.

Bloom notes today's college students are more aware of the political issues surrounding marijuana because of the educational efforts of activist groups such as Cannabis Action Network and the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML).

"College kids have embraced a lot of information. They find interesting, enlightening and worth pursuing. They go to a rally and really learn something," he said. "Not everyone smokes it, but the majority who attend rallies are users."

Ben Masel, a former student at the University of Wisconsin at Madison and now the Wisconsin state coordinator for NORML, says campus pot users and alcohol users fall into separate camps.

"It's not the same crowd smoking pot as it was in the early '80s," Masel said. "You have one crowd drinking and one crowd smoking, although in the early '80s, they were doing both."

McVay agrees. "Pot smokers are more health conscious. You don't see fights, you never hear of people abusing their spouses or kids on pot like you do on alcohol," he said.

McVay also noted college students are particularly re-sponding to the idea of legalizing marijuana for medicinal purposes.

"There has been a political comeback for pot," he said.

Dr. Gloria Bertachhi, a Roseville, Calif. psychologist who specializes in drug abuse, does not think marijuana is as innocent a drug as student activists are attempting to portray it.

She has news for students who think the worst thing pot can do is leave you with a case of the munchies.

"No drugs are safe and casual," she said. "Pot can induce a state similar to paranoid schizophrenia. In fact, it mimics it in some cases. Every drug has a side effect."

Bertachhi noted, unlike alcohol, the effects of marijuana have not been studied in depth. She said that alcohol continues to be the No. 1 drug of choice on college campuses in the '90s.

Bertachhi also cites studies that associate marijuana with low birth weights and psychiatric disturbances other than schizophrenia.

Though students are smoking pot less, many campuses throughout the nation had some type of rallies or programs during Marijuana Week, which was celebrated Sept. 21-26 throughout the country.

At Penn State, Robert Kampiak the president of the undergraduate student government, was elected on a platform advocating the legalization of marijuana.

At the Harvard University Law School, a conference on the legalization of marijuana was held last May.






by Rebecca Mayfield

Generation X Press

University and college students can see plenty of room on the other side, but getting through is hard --many are competing for a few places.

No, this isn't a traffic jam on campus.

It could be called an educational jam.

Students across the country are trying to get into allied health science programs at universities and colleges so they can enter the allied health sciences field, one of the most open job markets of the 1990s.

However, universities and colleges cannot keep up with either the students' demand for allied health education or with the health industry's demand for graduates in the field.

"It is a classic bottleneck situation," said Thomas C. Robinson, dean of the College of Allied Health Professions at the University of Kentucky. "Universities and colleges need to catch up to society's needs."

The allied health professions include physical therapy, radiation therapy, occupational therapy, radiography and physician assistants.

According to Business Week (April 27, 1992), the health care industry's job openings will continue to grow in the 1990s and beyond as the number of people 75 and older climbs rapidly.

There is already a great shortage of workers in allied health professions in health care today. In 1988, the vacancy rate for physical therapists was 15.8 percent, while the vacancy rate for occupational therapists was 14.6 percent, according to the American Hospital Association.

At Wichita State University in Kansas, it is not uncommon for graduates to get eight or nine job offers, said Jim Matney, assistant dean for the College of Health Professions.

"People realize now that jobs in health care are not tied to the state of the economy," he said.

Educational funding, however, is tied to the state of the economy, and most schools cannot afford to expand their allied health sciences programs to accommodate more students. Schools across the country have experienced a sharp increase in the number of applicants to allied health sciences programs.

Robinson said in 1988 the University of Kentucky began to see a double-digit percentage increase in applicants. This year there were 400 applicants for 48 positions in the physical therapy program.

At Indiana University's Indianapolis campus, 10 new openings have been added recently to the physical therapy radiography and occupational therapy programs, but there are still overwhelming numbers of applicants, said T. Kay Carl, assistant dean of Student and Academic Affairs at the School of Allied Health Sciences.

This year, of 85 eligible candidates, only 31 could be accepted into Wichita State's physicians' assistant program.

"There are absolute limits to the number of students we can accept," Matney said. "It is pointless for us to think about expanding because of the shrinking educational dollar."

Robinson, who is also the president of the Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions, said, "Most publicly funded schools are facing declining financial resources. Universities and colleges are going to have to find different ways of putting together revenues."

This might mean universities, government and the health care industry will have to form partnerships, he said.

The Pew Charitable Trust Commission's report on the health professions offers some suggestions for dealing with this educational crisis.

Professor Leopold Sulker, interim dean of the College of Associated Health Professions at the University of Illinois in Chicago, said, "What the report says is that our health care system needs an attitude adjustment."

A major thrust of the report, he said, is the faculty shortage in allied health must be dealt with by creating Centers of Excellence, Allied Health Scholars' programs and more doctoral programs. Most of the education of allied health professionals takes place either in hospitals, two- or four-year colleges; and these settings need to link together to create more opportunities for allied health professionals to climb the career ladder, he said.

But, until the administration of health care education changes, most students can expect entry into an allied health sciences program a difficult undertaking.

Matney said students should not expect admission into a program if their grade point average is below a 3.0.






CPS--Two studies by the U.S. Labor Department suggest what many college graduates already know: A growing number of graduates hold jobs that don't require college degrees.

The reports, by economists Daniel E. Hecker and Kristina J. Shelley, were written earlier this year but are now just gaining national media attention. While the studies found that college graduates still earn more than high school graduates, they also found that many recent college graduates are working in jobs that don't require undergraduate degrees.

"If a goal is to make money, students have to be careful in picking a major," Shelley said, noting that neither study broke down specific degrees and jobs obtained after graduation.

Hecker, however, determined that students with degrees in engineering or nursing have better chances of getting a job in their field than students with liberal arts degrees.

In Hecker's analysis, he found that from 1983 to 1990 the number of college graduates working as street vendors or door-to-door salespeople increased to 75,000 from 57,000; those employed as maids, janitors and cleaners increased to 83,000 from 72,000; and truck and bus drivers increased to 166,000 from 99,000.

From 1979 to 1990, the number of college graduates in the labor force grew to 29 million to 17.9 million. In the same period, the number of college graduates who were in jobs that did not require a degree or who were unemployed increased by 81 percent to about 5.8 million.

Things were far different in the 1960s, Hecker found. College graduates were heavily recruited by corporations. "Few graduates, regardless of their field of study, had difficulty finding college-level managerial, professional speciality, technical and sales representative jobs," he wrote. According to analyst Richard Freeman, "jobs sought graduates."

Shelley estimates if job and education trends continue, about 30 percent of college graduates entering the work force from 1990 to 2005 will work in jobs that don't require a degree.

"My analysis is dependent on the economy going the right way. People can draw their own conclusions," she said. "I am not trying to give someone a reason for going to college or not. The fact is that more people are educating themselves, and that job growth for required degrees is growing."

"People go to college for many reasons, not just for what they can earn," Hecker said. "For most people, college pays. But for some, it doesn't, at least not right away."






TALLAHASSEE, Fla. (CPS) -- Slasher movies are becoming more violent, according to researchers at Florida State University who have viewed 30 gory films made between 1980 and 1989.

Fred Molitor, who is pursuing a doctorate in communications, and Barry Sapolsky, chairman of the department of communications, have studied films with titles such as <i>Prom Night, Night Train to Terror, Hellbound, Hell High,<p> and <i>Motel Hell<p>.

They found that each film contained an average of 52 acts of violence directed against someone of either gender. Films for 1989 averaged 70 violent acts, much higher than the average of 40 to 47 violent acts for 1980 and 1985, respectively.

"In the original films, there was some subtlety," Molitor said. "Now they are more grotesque, they use more special effects. Kids like to watch them to become grossed out with their friends."

Of all violent acts, 32 percent were beatings, 23 percent were stabbings, and 18 percent were shootings. Male victims prevailed.

"We looked at the violence toward 'innocent' males and females, and did not count the violent acts against the slasher," said Molitor, who admits he had to detach from the films in order to remain objective.

In films made in 1980, the study indicated males suffered from major injuries an average of 1.1 times, and an average of 5.1 males died per movie. By 1989, males suffered major injuries 6.1 times per movie and an average of 7.7 died.

The researchers said that though violence toward women seems to have declined, women are more often portrayed in a state of screaming terror.

"Females in slasher films are in terror an average of nine minutes of film time, which is about one-tenth of the movie as opposed to two minutes for males," said Molitor.

There is not much evidence to link violence to sex in slasher movies. Less than 14 percent of all sexual events were linked to a female's death and an average of only 1.3 females per movie were killed during or following sex.

A trend that Molitor finds disturbing is the use of camera angles that portray action from the eyes of the slasher, rather than from the victim's viewpoint.

"Unlike older horror stories, some new films almost ask you to root for the bad guys. The victims become just another person that needs to be knocked off," he said, noting that females are seen much more often when this camera angle is used.



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