Deborah Hensel

Daily Cougar Staff

Differences in the way students perceive and interact with male and female professors was the focus of a speech by Bernice Sandler to UH faculty Thursday.

Sandler, a senior associate of the Center for Women's Policy Studies in Washington, D.C., was in Houston to share her expertise on sexual harassment on college campuses.

"There now is a small but growing body of research that does show that women faculty are treated differently by male and female students," said Sandler, who is compiling a paper based on research from several universities.

"It doesn't occur in every class; it doesn't occur all the time. But it gives a very powerful message to women and to men that women are outsiders in the academic enterprise."

One difference is that students of both genders expect female professors to be more motherly and more nurturing, she said.

If a student fails to complete a paper by the required date, he or she may be angry when the woman instructor is not more understanding, she said, adding that students were used to such sympathy from their mother.

"At the same time that students expect more caring, more warm behavior from female faculty members, they nevertheless may interpret such behavior as a weakness or deficiency in some way," she said.

"On the other hand, if a woman faculty member acts too strong, too assertive -- like her male colleagues -- she may be viewed as too masculine. It's the old double bind."

Sandler cited a study which indicates women faculty spend more time with students and give them more attention, yet they were rated on evaluations as being less accessible than male professors.

Sandler cited another study indicating female instructors get better ratings from students when they exhibit more feminine qualities -- like smiling more and being more sociable. They are also more likely to receive personal comments about appearance on evaluation form.

A male instructor who is careless in his appearance is likely to be viewed as merely eccentric, she said. A female instructor is more likely to be judged as careless -- a reflection of her efficiency and professionalism.

A study of graduate students showed that male students were more aggressive in a class taught by a woman, said Sandler.

Not only did they speak up more and for longer periods of time, they tended to interrupt female students and the instructor more often than in a class taught by a man.

"The researcher, Virginia Brooks, postulates that the female professor creates a dissonance because she's a female in a position of authority," said Sandler. "That threatens the self-esteem of some males. And so, in turn, because they're threatened, they become more aggressive."

Male students are also more likely to challenge a woman's authority and to question her credentials, Sadler said. They may be more likely to address her as "Ms.," "Miss" or "Mrs." than "Doctor."

Sadler said a survey of incoming freshmen on college campuses across the country revealed 25 percent of all respondents still believe a married woman should stay at home.

The problem originates in the devaluation of women, Sandler said. Given identical resumes or written articles where the only difference is the gender implied by the name, studies show the article with the male name is rated higher, she said.

Furthermore, when young children are given a task to do and complete it successfully, boys will attribute their success to skill, Sandler said, adding that girls will attribute theirs to luck.

"Ask men and women you know how they got their jobs," she said. "The men almost inevitably tell you why they deserve it. Women will say 'I was so lucky. I was in the right place at the right time.'

"My advice is never say you were 'lucky' because they didn't find you on the street and say, 'oh, would you like to be a professor?'

"You can also see (devaluation) in the way the same behaviors are often seen differently for men and for women. Men have judgment -- what do women have? Intuition."

"You have judgment," she said, pointing to one of only three men in the audience. "I can rely on you next week because I know you're going to have it. But intuition? Will it strike? Will it be there when we need it?"

Sandler, a consultant for universities on promoting equity for women, was the first Congressional committee staff member to work specifically on women's rights. She also was instrumental in the development and passage of Title IX and other laws prohibiting discrimination in education.

The breakfast meeting in Melcher Hall faculty lounge was hosted by the UH Committee on the Status of Women.






by Melissa Neeley

Daily Cougar Staff

Many students are leaving behind the stress of exams to surmount another obstacle: surviving the holiday season on a student budget that limits fine-dining experiences to either Wendy's 99-cent burgers or Taco Bell.

Students living in residence halls can find some financial relief by attending parties by their floor advisors, said Karen Elkins, area coordinator for the Quadrangle.

"A number of the RA's will be having little parties or some sort of finals week study-break for their floor members. We will also be decorating a Christmas tree with recycled materials to promote our recycling project. We'll probably offer hot cider and doughnuts to participating students," Elkins said.

The American Restaurant Association, which operates the dining services in the residence halls, will be selling turkeys and hams to students with board cards, she said.

Students can purchase these items if they have an excess of meals on their board cards, she said.

Floor advisors will also offer students survival kits complete with various snack food to help alleviate stress from studying for final exams, Elkins said.

A midnight breakfast, served in the Moody Towers on Dec. 14 starting at 10 p.m., will enable residents to quell their cravings for midnight munchies. They will also be served by residential life and housing staff instead of the usual kitchen staff, Risa Farber, student development coordinator for the Residence Halls Association, said.

"The midnight breakfast is a fun twist for students because they get to see us in a totally different way--we have to serve them. They really enjoy this and it's our way of saying thank you to them," she added.

Students confined to a strict budget may also realize that buying the perfect gifts for their friends and family is nearly impossible. They may look for sales or even make their own gifts.

Karen Kirk, a senior anthropology major, took a sculpture class this semester and opted to make a Christmas gift for her mother instead of buying one like she usually does. She plans on giving her a sculpture that she modeled from an impressionist painting she studied in class, she said.

Kirk also knows how to sew and is making an outfit to give to a friend instead of spending twice the amount that she would have paid for the same item at a department store, she said.

Bethanie Williams, a junior psychology major, said she is making gifts for 12 of her friends living on her floor in the Moody Towers.

William works with many children for the Mental Health and Mental Retardation Association. Finding inexpensive arts and craft projects for the children to work on has given her several ideas about making gifts for her friends, she said.

"This year I'm making little tokens like pencils that are decorated like Rudolph, the red-nosed reindeer, for some people on my floor," she said. "My mom is also helping me out a lot and making lingerie for my close friends. I have to pay for the decorations and paints, but it's very inexpensive and turns out really nice."

Drew Roberson, a sophomore industrial distribution major, lives in La Marque with his parents and finds holiday shopping the most stressful part of the season, he said.

"I'm used to having all the money I make to keep for myself. When Christmas comes around, I know all my money is going to go towards buying gifts. I also have to drive 20 miles to get to the nearest mall (Baybrook), so buying gifts for my parents can be frustrating," he said.

Roberson works 25 to 35 hours a week at Hasting's Record Shop, and gets a 30 to 40 percent discount on all the items in the store. The discount allows him to buy records and tapes for his friends and brothers for reasonable prices, he said.

"Working at Hasting really helps my Christmas budget. I mostly worry about getting something nice for my mom," he said.

Roberson recommends working extra hours during the Christmas season to buy gifts for friends and family.






by Ericka Schiche

Daily Cougar Staff

Those seeking inexpensive buys for the holiday season have reason to rejoice at the number of neat finds in area stores.

The Contemporary Arts Museum gift store sells ties decorated with rich hues for $16. Such patterns as red brick wall sections, blue circles, and leaves are featured on some of the ties.

The work of Vincent Van Gogh is reproduced on other ties, which feature, among other titles, "Sunflowers," "Starry Night" and Van Gogh's self portrait.

Such stores as The Tie Rack and Walter Pye's also sell relatively inexpensive ties that are decorated with stripes, paisley designs and solid colors.

Those who are really living on a rice-and-beans budget will find a nice $5 bracelet at Timbuktu, a boutique that features clothing and accessories from Africa.

The bracelet is made of a black or brown leather strip that has cowrie shells sewn on it. The shells are gathered from the Ivory Coast, a country on the Western coast of Africa.

Naranjo's American Indian Art, a store that sells wares created in various Native American tribes, also sells inexpensive jewelry. There is an abundance of silver jewelry, some of which is designed with semi-precious stones. Many of the rings, earrings, and bracelets are priced under $20.

Those who prefer to give artsy gifts can find frames, mats, and art supplies at reasonable prices.

Cultural Concepts also sells art works. The store sells a 36-inch long strip of kente cloth, a piece of fabric decorated in shades of yellow, orange, red, and green. Kings and queens of the Ashanti tribe, based in Ghana, often wore this type of cloth, which sells for $18 at the store. The store also sells Egyptian papyrus paper, unframed hieroglyphics calendars and medallions.

For those who like to read, several area book stores, such as Half Price Books and Book Stop, sell postcard books, various low-priced fiction and non-fiction titles in addition to gifts, bookmarks and coffee table books.

In another gift category, such colognes as Drakkar Noir, Fahrenheit and Benetton's Colors are priced under $35. Inexpensive fragrances for women include California, Navy and Exclamation.

Although this is a time of giving to and receiving from friends and loved ones, there are some who cannot afford to buy any material treasures.

A donation to The Food Bank, Salvation Army or The Star of Hope Mission would also be a nice inexpensive gift to give someone who really needs it.






by Deborah Hensel

Daily Cougar Staff

The problem of sexual harassment on college campuses is widespread and takes many forms, according to Dr. Bernice Sandler, who published the first paper on the subject several years ago.

Sandler, a senior associate for the Center for Women Policy Studies in Washington D.C., visited UH Thursday to advise the Sexual Harassment Board on the efficacy of its campus policy.

Reports from universities across the country indicate that 70 percent to 90 percent of female students have experienced sexual harassment from male students, to which they reacted negatively.

The unwelcome behavior, Sandler said, includes men loudly commenting on women's breasts, rating them from one to 10, whistling, obscenities and graffiti, sending sexually-oriented gifts, pouring beer on them and pestering them for dates long after "no" was established.

Sandler also said peer harassment occurs in the classroom.

For instance, on some campuses she has heard of obscenities placed on school computers that the women have to face in order to gain access.

Another form of harassment may occur when a woman raises women's issues in class, she said.

"Men may boo or hiss or ridicule the woman, which effectively shuts her up," Sandler said. "So much for freedom of speech or free discussion of ideas."

Students coming to American universities from foreign cultures where women are devalued may pose another type of problem.

"In some cultures, a woman walking alone without a brother or a father or a husband is signalling that she is sexually available . . . to any man," Sandler said. On American campuses, that standard could apply to almost any female student walking to class.

"These people are perfectly capable of learning what is not acceptable behavior (here). If he were to light a bonfire and say 'this is my culture,' we would not let him do it," she said.

With regard to harassment from faculty to students, Sandler said that 2 percent of undergraduate women experience "direct or indirect threats or bribes for unwanted sexual activity"--quid pro quo, as determined by a 1986 Supreme Court decision.

She said 20 percent to 30 percent of undergraduate women experience other forms of harassment -- touching, leering, innuendos, comments about their sexuality -- which include the 2 percent of quid pro quo incidents.

The more common form of harassment is termed "hostile environment," she said, because it interferes with a woman's ability to function -- in the workplace or classroom.

Sandler said the incidence of female students harassing male professors -- excessive flirting or seductive behavior to improve their standing in a class -- is extremely rare.

"I'm not denying that female students do use their sexuality," she said, "but men are more likely to misinterpret female demeanor."

Sandler cited a study which showed a videotaped conversation between men and women to observers of both genders.

When the observers were asked "Is the woman coming on to him or just being friendly?" the women were likely to perceive the behavior as friendliness.

"Men watching the identical video more often say 'oh, definitely . . . she's coming on to him," Sandler said.






by Shannon Edward McMayon

Special to the Cougar

The winter solstice, observed Dec. 21 or 22, has long been considered a time of great power and magic by religions all over the world.

On this day, the sun reaches the southernmost point of the equator, and winter begins. From this turning point, days begin to lengthen, and the power of the sun increases.

For this reason, the winter solstice throughout history has been regarded as the nativity of the Sun. In Persia, Syria, Egypt and Semitic lands, the new-born Sun was represented by the image of an infant on his birthday -- an infant born to, interestingly enough, a virgin. This nativity, as celebrated in Syria and Egypt, had celebrants crying out at midnight: "The Virgin has brought forth! The light is waxing!"

In this manner, the Christian festival know as Christmas is intimately linked to this pivotal day of the year.

The Julian calendar reckoned the solstice to fall on Dec. 25. However, the gospels give no indication of the specific day of Christ's birth, and accordingly, early Christians did not celebrate it.

In time, the eastern church decided Jan. 6 to be the day of the Christian Nativity, but the western church did not recognize this date as such.

Early Christians, though, did participate freely in the heathen festivities of the Nativity of the Sun. And around the beginning of the fourth century, the Western church adopted Dec. 25 as the actual day of Christ's birth, thus transferring the heathen devotion to the Sun to Christ, "him who was called the <i>Sun<p> of Righteousness," according to St. Augustine.






Sally Pouncy

Daily Cougar Staff

Nowadays it seems the only stories coming out of the U.K. are those about Charles and Di. True, it is a travesty that the fairy-tale marriage between an old man and a young lovely is over, but why let their sob story ruin the yuletide season?

There is an incredibly funny film flying over the Atlantic this holiday season. It's called <i>Peter's Friends<p>, and it's British humor at its best.

The story is about Peter (Stephen Fry), a man who recently lost his father and doesn't know what to do with the country estate or the title of Lord he just inherited. So, Peter decides to throw a New Year's Eve party at his expansive house for six of his college chums whom he has not seen for 10 years. The friends reunite for the weekend, share old memories and present problems to one another.

Kenneth Branagh stars in and directs this British <i>Big Chill<p>, playing Andrew, former best friend of Peter. Andrew brings his neurotic actress/wife, Carol (Rita Rudner), with him for the weekend and she ends up being laughed <i>at<p> more than <i>with<p>.

Roger and Mary (Hugh Laurie and Imelda Staunton) are a couple whose marriage is filled with grief and problems.

Beautiful nymphomaniac Sarah (Alphonsia Emmanuel) drags her latest lover with her on the weekend only to dump him after the first day.

Then there is Maggie (Emma Thompson), a sweet, forlorn woman who brings extra baggage to the weekend jaunt.

Branagh has made an incredibly funny film about the relationships between adults. Gone are the cliche put-down lines of most holiday movies, replaced instead with subtle jokes that cause the theater to fill with laughter.

For example, jokes like "Have you ever fallen in love? No, but I've stepped in it" ring through the entire movie.

Audiences will laugh at the characters whose attitudes mirror millions of average people's lives. They will feel for the characters' special problems that have been ignored until the reunion.

<i>Peter's Friends<p> is a wonderful movie which must not be missed. It opens Friday, Dec. 25, at selected theaters.






by Ericka Schiche

Daily Cougar Staff


Sade opens musical doors to the Caribbean, the deep blue sea, and the harsh realities of life in Somalia with her fourth release, <i>Love Deluxe<p>.

She still has a raspy voice and a penchant for songs that paint pictures, but with <i>Deluxe<p>, the song stylist charts new lyrical territory.

Sade's earlier songs, such as "Your Love is King," "Sweetest Taboo" and "Smooth Operator," stand out as examples of her ability to add flesh to simple lyrics while accompanied by her jazz band, which consists of bassist Paul Denman, keyboard player Andrew Hale, and guitarist/saxophonist Stewart Matthewman.

The latest release includes a hearty mix of ballads, up-tempo cuts, songs with word pictures, a jazzy tune, and a song laced with poignancy.

"No Ordinary Love," the first single, showcases Matthewman's harder-edged guitar playing. The lyrics are free flowing. Her ethereal voice is never overpowered by the guitar riffs.

One of the best cuts on the album is "Feel No Pain," a bluesy song about hard times experienced by the unemployed. Here, she draws more from the style listeners are familiar with -- clear, succinct phrasing with a lot of punch.

"Mama been laid off/ papa been laid off/ my brother's been laid off/ for more than two years now/ ooh can't get a job/ Billy can't get a job/ ooh they gotta listen to the blues," she sings, while the percussion and bass work adds an eclectic touch that consists of blues, reggae, and African rhythms.

In this song, which is appropriate for recessionary times, Sade uses repetition effectively. She also sings prophetic words of wisdom. At the end of the song, as if the sun is setting against darkening skies, she asks, "Did you ever see a man break down?"

Other songs, such as "I Couldn't Love You More" (in which she flaunts her scat singing talent), "Kiss of Life" and "Cherish the Day," are not as strong in songwriting quality. They are good, but none of them is vintage Sade.

Of the nine cuts on the release, "Pearls" is not only the most poignant, but the most timely -- It is essentially a tribute to those who have died or are suffering from famine in sun-scorched Somalia.

With her powerful voice, she paints a picture of an emaciated woman who is emotionally spent and eager to garner as much grain as her strength allows. "Each grain carefully wrapped up/ pearls for her little girl," she sings, traces of sorrow in her voice. Cellist Tony Pleeth does an excellent solo.

"Bullet-Proof Soul," a cut that features a duet between Sade and Leroy Osburne, is an example of Sade's writing talents. Band members Matthewman and Hale also lend their services to the song in which a man and a woman liken love to a gun.

"Mermaids," the only instrumental cut, gives the band members a chance to be even more creative as they imitate the sounds of sea gulls, dolphins, and the depths of the sea.

Overall, Sade's latest offering is one of her strongest for its experimental songwriting, excellent music, and strong vocal work.






by Adam King

Daily Cougar Staff

Anthony Goldwire was a hidden talent waiting to be uncovered, and the University of Houston hit the "X" that marked his spot at Pensacola (Fla.) Junior College.

This highly touted junior, who averaged 15.4 points, 7.8 assists, 2.2 steals and 4.1 rebounds last season, bypassed Arkansas, Memphis State and Southern Cal to play basketball for Houston thanks to, he said, some very impressionable recruiting.

"(Assistant) Coach (Tommy) Jones recruited me in my freshman year," Goldwire said. "I'll never forget this. (Jones) said, 'Anthony, when I come back in your sophomore year, I'm going to take you back with me to Houston.' I looked at him and laughed and said, 'I'm not going to no University of Houston.' "

But Goldwire's desire not to be just another jersey on the bench convinced him that Houston might not be such a bad place to play.

"I turned down Arkansas, Memphis State and USC because of playing time. I wanted to start right in and get a chance to play 30 to 40 minutes a game," the 6-foot-1, 182-pound Goldwire said. "I'm happy with the position I'm at right now."

That position might have been cornerback for football Coach John Jenkins instead of point guard for basketball Coach Pat Foster if a bit of luck hadn't come along.

Goldwire had been raised on football and had participated in several pee-wee leagues. He was all ready to try out for the 7th-grade football team when the basketball coach caught him shooting layups in the gym.

"He asked me what my name was, so I told him," Goldwire said. "He didn't ask me to try out or nothing. He said, 'You're on the team because I know you ... can play basketball.

"I wasn't good coming in because I didn't really want to do it, he kind of forced me to do it. I love the game because then I was such a defensive person. It was like football, you want to play to hit somebody."

Goldwire took his best hits during his senior year at Suncoast High School in Riviera Beach. The Chargers went 36-0 and won the Class 2A state championship. Goldwire received all-tournament, all-conference and all-state honors that year. He attributes his success, in part, to his competitive nature.

Asked to rate his competitiveness on a scale of 1-10, Goldwire said:

"I'm about a 10, 10-and-a-half. I love to compete. If I lose, it takes a lot out of me. When we lost our exhibition game (against TTL-Bamburg), I didn't even want to go eat. I was thinking about the things I could have done.

"I have to be competitive because if I'm not, you get torn up."

In the first game of the season against DePaul, Goldwire scored 15 points while dishing out three assists. But don't be fooled by his scoring output. Goldwire wants to be a team player.

"I'd rather be known as a play-maker because that's what the people above Division-I look at," he said. "My team will do better if I'm averaging 10 or 12 assists than if I'm averaging 17 or 25 points."






by Heather Ellis

Daily Cougar Staff

The Houston Cougars faced some of the top swim and dive teams in the country Dec. 4-6 at the Texas Invitational in Austin.

No. 1 ranked Stanford as well as the No. 2 Texas Longhorns were among the powerhouse teams present at the meet.

Overall, the team members did not perform as well as they would have liked, but as Head Coach Phill Hansel explained, the meet was a gauge for the team.

"What we were after in Austin was to see how the girls placed in the individual meets this time of year," he said.

Not only did the Cougars compete in the regularly scheduled competition but they also swam and dived against Arkansas.

There were many top place finishers for the Cougars when they swam against Arkansas.

Among those who fared well were Olivia Clark, Alex Hayns, Michelle Smith, Maria Rivera and Vanessa Hein.






by Heather Ellis

Daily Cougar Staff

The Lady Cougars are currently modeling themselves after the well-loved children's book "The Little Engine That Could."

It seems that the Cougars are plagued with the "I think I can, I think I can" syndrome, putting in a good effort up to the last four minutes of a game and then running out of steam at the end.

Head Coach Jessie Kenlaw has several explanations for this uphill battle.

"We have to learn how to dig down deeper and play hard for more than 30 minutes." she said. "We still need a floor leader, and we need to score on every possession and play defense."

Team members will have a chance to redeem themselves this weekend at the Lady Cougar Invitational on Saturday and Sunday, Dec. 12 and 13. The games will take place at Hofheinz Pavilion.

Much like the Hobby Hilton Classic held on Dec. 5 and 6, this tournament will include four teams: UH, Grambling, USL, and Southern.

Saturday at 5 p.m., Grambling and USL face off, with Houston and Southern playing each other at 7 p.m. that evening.

On Sunday there will be a consolation game at 1 p.m., with the championship game following at 3 p.m.

The team returned from their first road game empty-handed, losing to the Sam Houston State LadyKats on Wednesday, 71-64.

They went neck-and-neck with the LadyKats the first half and were ahead by three, 30-27, at halftime.

By the final five minutes, exhaustion had set in, according to Kenlaw, and the LadyKats made three crucial three-pointers. The Lady Cougars did not respond offensively and the LadyKats overpowered them and won the game.

"We don't want to make excuses anymore," Kenlaw said. "We are a young team, but it is time to do something about not winning."



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